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Ukusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene emisebenzini: umgomo wenqubo yedimokhrasi kwezezilimi

Idokumenti yocwaningo olwenziwe ngo:

Dr Danie du Plessis
weDiphatimenti yezokuxhumana eUNISA

uDr Gerard Schuring
30 June 2000

Sibonga kakhulu nakuDr Karel Prinsloo kanye nenhlangano ye-Stigting van Afrikaans
ngokuthela esivivaneni.

OKUQUKETHWE

Ibika: ngoFlip Buys: uNobhala oMkhulu (oyiNhloko) weMWU
Isandulelo: ngoKallie Kriel: uDayirektha / uMqondisi we-institute yezocwaningo yeMWU

Isingeniso sokuphawula

ISIGABA 1: ISISHWANKATHELO NGEMIBHALO EYEHLUKENE NGOKUSETSHENZISWA KWEZILIMI EZEHLUKENE

1. Ukuxhumana ezinhlanganweni

    1.1 Imisebenzi yezilimi
    1.2 Ukusebenzela injongo eyodwa nokubona ngaso linye (i-convergence theory)
    1.3 Ulimi nokuxhumana ezinhlanganweni
    1.4 Ukusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene: izibonelo kumazwe omhlaba kanye nangaphakathi

ISIGABA 2: UCWANINGO OLWENZIWE

    2.1 Isendlalelo
    2.2 Uhlobo lwenkinga
    2.3 Izinjongo
    2.4 Izindlela nenqubo yocwaningo
    2.5 Okutholakele (imiphumela)
    2.6 Isikhokhelo (imikhombandlela) ngomgomo wezilimi

ISIGABA 3 ISIPHETHO

IMIBHALO OKUFUNDWE NOKUCASHUNWE KUYO

ISITHASISELO 1: UMGOMO WENQUBO YEDIMOKHRASI KWEZEZILIMI EMISEBENZINI
ISITHASISELO 2: INCAZELO NEZIZATHU: UMGOMO WENQUBO YEDIMOKHRASI KWEZEZILIMI
ISITHASISELO 3: IZIKHOKHELO NOMKHOMBANDLELA NGOKUQALA UKUSEBENZISA UMGOMO

IBIKA

Into evame ukwenzeka kuwo wonke umhlaba jikelele, lapho okunikezwa khona ithuba lokuthi izilimi ezimbalwa zikhule, kodwa kube kucindezelwa ezinye, kuvame ukuthi lokhu kubangwe wukubaluleka kokusetshenziswa kwalezo zilimi kwezomnotho (kweze-ikhonomi). Uma ulimi lulahlekelwa wukubaluleka kokusetshenziswa kwalo emisebenzini, kanti naku-ikhonomi (kumnotho) wonkana, okuvamile wukuthi leyo miphakathi yalezo zilimi ezingasetshenziswa igcina isifunda ezinye izilimi ngenxa yezomnotho (yeze-ikhonomi), lokhu kwenzeka ngesikhathi izinto zisashintsha, kodwa leyo miphakathi igcina isithathe lolo lwimi olusetshenziswa kwezomnotho (kweze-ikhonomi). Lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi wukugudluka ezilimini (language shift).

Inqubo yokuthi olunye ulimi luthathe isikhundla sezinye izilimi yinto eyeqala ukwenzeka kuwo wonke umhlaba ngesikhathi amazwe aseYuropha ethatha nokubusa amanye amazwe ngeminyaka yoma 1500 noma-1600. Amandla kwezomnotho (kweze-ikhonomi) alawo mazwe ayethatha amanye amazwe ngobukoloni agcina ebangele ukufa kwalezo zilimi zomdabu zalowo mazwe ayethathwa ngobukoloni. Isibonelo, eBrazil, izilimi zomdabu zakulelo cishe ezingamaphesenti angu 75% zashabalala, ukusukela ngaleso sikhathi izwe labo lithathwa ngobukoloni. Kanti kuzilimi zomdaba ezingu-180 ezasala, lulodwa vo olusakhulunywa ngabantu abangu-10 000. Lesi simo senzeka nasezweni lase Australia. Ukusukela ngonyaka ka-1788, izilwimi zomdabu zakulelizwe ziye zancipha zisukela ku-250 zase zayogcina ku 20.

Ngenxa yenqubo yezimakethe ezenabela kuwo wonke umhlaba (process of globalisation), ukuthi kusetshenziswe ulimi olulodwa oluthatha izikhundla zezinye izilimi, yinto eya ngokuya ikhula ngokwesabisayo ukudlula nangesikhathi sobukoloni, noma ezinye izikhathi emlandweni. Ukuxhumana kangcono, kanye nokuthi izimakethe sezenabela kalula kwamanye amazwe, kwenze ukuthi kube nempikiswano enkulu phakathi kwezilimi. Ngenxa yokuthi kunalokhu kuphikisana okukhulu kwezilimi, ithuba elilodwa elikhona kwezezilimi, wukuthi ulimi lukwazi ukuqikelela ukuba nesikhundla nokusetshenziswa kwezomnotho, kanti nasemisebenzini.

Kodwa izinto ezenza ukuthi ulwimi luthathe izikhundla zezinye izilimi, zingaba ngezihlukene kundawo ngendawo emhlabeni. Asikho isizathu esenza ukuthi isimo se-Afrikaans kanye nezinye izilimi zomdaba eNingizimu Afrika sehluke, nokuthi inqubo lapha ingehluka kunakwezinye izindawo uma kungathathwa amanyathelo okukhuthaza ukusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene emisebenzini.

Kungenxa yalesi sizathu esenze ukuthi inhlangano ye-MWU ithathe isinqumo sokukhipha lolu shicilelo (iphablikheshini) ukufaka esivivaneni sokuqinisekisa nokuqikelela ukuthi izilimi ezehlukene zeNingizimu Afrika ziqhubekele phambili. I-MWU yenze lomsebenzi ngenhloso yokusiza abaqashi eNingizimu Afrika ukuthi bathole inqubo esebenzekayo nekhonakalayo yokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene emisebenzini.

UFlib Buys
uNobhala oyiNhloko: kuMWU


Isandulelo ngalolu shicilelo

I-MWU yinyunyane enamalunga angu-65 000, amele izimboni kanye namaprofeshini ehlukene. Ezinyangeni ezimbalwa ezedlule, iMWU ithole izikhalazo eziningi ezilethwa ngabasebenzi kuMWU ngokuvinjelwa kwenqubo yokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene emisebenzini. IMWU yaxhumana neBhodi lezilimi zaseNingizimu Afrika (Pan South African Language Board — PANSALB), ukuyicela ukuthi iphenyisise ngalaba baqashi abavimbela ukusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene. IBhodi yezilimi zaseNingizimu Afrika (PANSALB) iyinhlangano esimekwe ngokomthetho wephalamende, eyasungulwa ngokulandela uMthethosisekelo weNingizimu Afrika, ukuthi ivikele amalungelo ezilimi afakwe kuMthethosisekelo, kanti futhi iBhodi iye yakhipha izinqumo eziningana maqondana nalabo baqashi, ababekwa icala lokuthi basebenzisa imigomo emibi kwezezilimi. Ukunikeza nje isibonelo, iPANSALB ikhiphe isinqumo sokuthi inkampani ngeke yasebenzisa ulimi ololodwa, ngoba lokho kuphikisana noMthethosisekelo.

I-MWU ibona ukuthi izinqumo ezikhishwe yiPANSALB zizoba nemiphumela ebambekayo kubaqashi, ngoba abaqashi bazophoqeleka ukwenza umgomo wezilimi ozobonelela izilimi ezehlukene. Kodwa inkinga abaqashi ababhekene nayo, wukuthi kuze kube manje, asikho isikhokhelo nesisekelo somgomo ongalandelwa (imodeli) esebenzekayo, ekhonakalayo nengasetshenziswa, kungakho bavele bazisebenzisele ulimi olulodwa.

Ngemizamo yokubhekana nale nkinga, i-MWU icele osolwazi abambalwa ukusiza ngokuthi benze isikhokelo nesisekelo somgomo ongalandelwa, kodwa ozobonelela izidingo nezimo zangempela zezilimi eNingizimu Afrika. Lesi sikhokhelo nesisekelo esikulolu shicilelo (le phablikheshini) singumkhombandlela nesikhokhelo kubaqashi ukuthi bakwazi ukwenza umgomo ozobonelela ukusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene. Kuwumbono weMWU ukuthi abaqashi bangakuthola kuwusizo nokuba nenzuzo kakhulu ukuthi basebenzise lenqubo yezilimi ezehlukene.

uKalie Kriel
uDayirektha: we-institute yezocwaningo


INQUBO YEDIMOKHRASI KWEZEZILIMI EMISEBENZINI

Isingeniso sokuphawula
Kunezinhlobo, izilimi namasiko ehlukene eNingizimu Afrika. Lokhu kugqame kakhulu kwezezilimi. Ngokulandela ukubalwa kwabantu kuzwelonke kwango-1991, izilimi ezikhulunywa ngabantu bonke eNingizimu Afrika zingokulandelayo: (Schuring 1993:4):

    isiZulu 21,96%
    isiXhosa 17.03%
    i-Afrikaans 15.03%
    isiSotho saseNyakatho 9.64%
    isiNgisi 9.01%
    isiTswana 8.59%
    isiSotho saseNingizimu 6.73%
    isiTsonga 4.35%
    isiSwati 2.57%
    isiVenda 2.22%
    isiNdebele 1.55%
    Ezinye 1,31%

Izilimi ezande kakhulu ezikhulunywa emakhaya, isiZulu, isiXhosa kanye ne-Afrikaans. Kukhona namanye amaqembu ezilimi (isiSotho saseNyakatho, isiNgisi, isiTswana, nesiSotho saseNingizimu), kanye namanye amaqembu ezilimi ezingandile kakhulu (okuyisiTsonga, isiSwati, isiVenda, kanye nesiNdebele).

Kulowo mbiko futhi (kaSchuring, 1993:16) kukhonjiswe ukuthi cishe abantu abangamaphesenti angu 47,76% kusizwe sonkana, abanalo ulwazi lwesiNgisi noma i-Afrikaans (okwakuyizilimi ezazigunyazwe ngumthetho ngesikhathi esedlule). Lokhu empeleni kusho ukuthi ngabantu abacishe babe ngamaphesenti angu 52.24% esizweni abafinyeleleka ngesiNgisi noma i-Afrikaans. Uma kusetshenziswa isiNgisi, ngabantu abangamaphesenti angu-42.35 kuphela abangafinyeleleka, kanti uma kusetshenziswa i-Afrikaans, ngabantu abangamaphesenti angu-42.31% kuphela abangafinyeleleka. Kulo mbiko, kuqhathaniswa ukubalwa kwabantu kwango 1970 no 1991, kanti amanani atholakalayo, akhombisa ukuthi ukuhleleka kwezilimi eNingizimu Afrika kusacishe kufane, nokuthi kulindeleke ukuthi kungashintshi kangako kuminyaka elishumi ezayo.

Ngokubheka la manani angenhla (amastatistiki), izinhlangano zebhekene namaqiniso okuthi kukhona abantu abakhuluma nokusebenzisa izilimi ezehlukene ezinhlanganweni zabo, kanti futhi alukho ulimi olulodwa olwaziywa ngokufanayo noma ngokulinganayo nangokusebenzisekayo kubo bonke abantu ngokulinganayo. Ngokuphikisana nalesi simo sangempela esiyiqiniso, sithola ukuthi izinhlangano zisebenzisa umgomo wolimi olulodwa (lolu limi kuvame ukuthi kube sisiNgisi, esetshenziswa ekuxhumaneni nasekuqeqesheni).

La maqiniso angenhla, yiwo abe yimbangela nogqozi lokwenza ucwaningo lokuthi kumele kusetshenziswe izilimi ezehlukene emisebenzini.

Izinjongo zalolu cwaningo zingokulandelayo:

  1. Ukwenza iziphakamiso ngokuthi ngabe kungasetshenziswa kanjani umgomo obonelela ukusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene ezinhlanganweni;
  2. Ukukhombisa izizathu zokuthi kungani kumele kulandelwe umgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene;
  3. Ukubheka izimo ezigqugquzela nokuqikelela ukuthi kusetshenziswe izilimi ezehlukene emisebenzini;
  4. Ukukhombisa izinto ezivamise ukwenzeka ngokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene eNingizimu Afrika, kanye nakumhlaba wonke jikelele.

ISIGABA 1: ISISHWANKATHELO NGEMIBHALO EYEHLUKENE
NGOKUSETSHENZISWA KWEZILIMI EZEHLUKENE

1.1 Ukuxhumana ezinhlanganweni
Kulesi sishwankathelo esifishane ngemibhalo, sithathe umbono wokuthi ulwimi luyinto okuxhunyanwa ngayo ezinhlanganweni. Kodwa ngaphambi kokuqala ukuzama ukuchaza umsebenzi wolwimi ezinhlanganweni, sizoke sibheke umsebenzi wezokuxhumana ezinhlanganweni, kanye nokwenza isishwankathelo esifishane sesimo sokusebenzela injongo eyodwa nokubona ngaso linye ezintweni (i-convergence theory), okuyisisekelo salolu cwaningo.

1.1.1 Imisebenzi yokuxhumana
Ngokulandela imibhalo efundiwe, imisebenzi yezokuxhumana ephawulekayo (bheka ku Koeleman 1992; Corrado 1993; Cummings, Long & Lwewis 1988; Myers & Myers 1982; Neher 1997; Thayer 1968; Axley 1996 noBarnett & Thayer 1997);

  • Ulwazi ngokwenziwa komsebenzi
    Inhlangano nenhlangano inomsebenzi wokuqala, okuwukunikeza ngama-product (imikhiqizo) noma ngamasevisi kubathengi bayo. Okuyingxenye yale nqubo, wukuthi abasebenzi benhlangano kumele babenezinhlobo zolwazi. Kulesi simo, umyalelo ngokuthi umsebenzi kumele wenziwe kanjani ngulwazi lokuqala olubalulekile, kodwa kungenziwa umehluko phakathi kwezinye izinhlobo zolwazi ezifana nolwazi lwenqubo yomsebenzi, ulwazi lwezamabhizinisi nokuqhuba ezentengo nentengiso kanye nolwazi lokuthatha izinqumo. UThayer (1997) ukholelwa ukuthi into ebaluleke kakhulu, akulona nje ulwazi olutholakalayo, kodwa into enkulu wukuthi ngabe lolu lwazi luqondisiswa kanjani yilabo abalutholayo; ngamanye amagama ukuchazeka kwalolo lwazi kuyingxenye esemqoka kwezokuxhumana emisebenzini.

    * Umyalelo ngokuthi umsebenzi kumele wenziwe kanjani
    Kule nqubo, umsebenzi uchazelwa okulindelwe kuye (lolu lwazi lungathathwa ngokuthi yincazelo nokuchazelwa komsebenzi). Uma sikubeka ngamanye amagama, umyalelo wokuthi umsebenzi wenziwa kanjani unikeza umsebenzi isiqiniseko ngokuthi yini okumele kwenziwe, kumele kwenziwe kanjani kanti futhi kumele lo msebenzi owenziwayo wenziwe nokuqedwa nini.

    * Ulwazi ngenqubo Abasebenzi baqashwa ngokuthathwa ngokuthi banolwazi olwanele nesipiloyini kuleyo ndawo okumele basebenze kuyo ukuze bakwazi ukwenza umsebenzi othize (lowo abaqashelwa ukuwenza). Inhlangano, kodwa kudingeka yethulele nokuchazela umsebenzi kumisebenzi ethize okulindeleke ukuthi ayenze kuloye nqubo yokwenziwa komsebenzi noma ukukhiqiza. Izinto ezifana nenqubo (amaprosija) kanye namaprosesi omsebenzi okumele alandelwe kanye nezidingo maqondana neqophelo (nekhwalithi) nokuphepha komsebenzi, kuyizinto ezihlukile kunhlangano nenhlangano.

    * Ulwazi lwezentengo nentengiso
    Kulesi sikhathi samanje lapho kumele kuthathwe khona izinqumo ngokubambisana, kanye nezinto ezifana nokuphathwa kolwazi (imenejimenti ye-infomeshini), kanye netiyori yezixaka-xaka (chaos theory) (bheka ukuthi kuthiwani ku-Barnett and Thayer 1997), kuyinto ebaluleke kakhulu ukuthi abasebenzi babenolwazi kwezentengo nentengiso, okufana nokuthi kwasalolo lwazi luhlelwa kanjani, kanye namanani entengiso, ezokumakethe, ukubekwa kwamanan’ entengiso, kanye nezikali zamaqophelo (kanti futhi ulwazi kumele lube maqondana nalezo zinkampani okuqhudelwana nazo) ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuthi bonke abathintekayo bakwazi ukubamba iqhaza ekufezekiseni izinhloso ezinkulu zenhlangano.

    * Ulwazi ngokuthathwa kwezinqumo
    Abasebenzi bancike kulwazi ukuze bakwazi ukwenza izinqumo ngendima okumele bayidlale ekufezekiseni izinhloso zenhlangano kanye nomsebenzi ophambi kwabo okumele bawenze. Ulwazi ludingeka nasekusizeni ukubona izinkinga zenhlangano kanye nezindlela zokuxazulula lezo zinkinga. Lokhu kungathathwa ngokuthi wulwazi oluqondene nokuthatha izinqumo. Imenejimenti idinga ulwazi ukuze bakwazi ukuthatha izinqumo. Ukuthola imibono yabasebenzi kuyo yonke imikhakha, yinto ebalulekile ekutholeni ulwazi kumenejimenti enhlanganweni. Kungenxa yalesi sizathu, ukuthi ukutholakala kolwazi olusuka kumikhakha ephansi luye kumikhakha ephezulu kumele kungavinjelwa noma kungabi nazihibe.

  • Ulwazi lokulawula
    Ulwazi lokulawula (control information) lusho inhlobo yolwazi oludingekayo ukuze inhlangano ikwazi ukubona ukuthi ngabe imibhidlango nemisebenzi yenhlangano yenziwa ngabantu abafanele, ngendlela efanele, futhi ngesikhathi esifanele yini. Konke ukuhlela okungenziwa ngemishini kuyabandakanywa kumsebenzi walolu lwazi. Le nhlobo yolwazi ayimile ndawonye nakhona lolu lwazi lungashintshwa-shintshwa ngokulandela okulindelwe kanye nezidingo zamaklayenti maqondana ne-product abayifunayo, ngokulandela ikhwalithi, ukuphepha, kanjalo njalo. Ulwazi lokulawula lubandakanya ukuthi kube nokugeleza kolwazi olusuka kubasebenzi luye kubaphathi kanye nolusuka kubaphathi luye kubasebenzi.

  • Ulwazi lomgomo
    Izinhlangano zivamise ukuthola izikhalazo ezibuya kubasebenzi ngezinto eziphathelene nemigomo (okubandakanya imigomo ngokukhiqiza, isimo okusetshenzwa ngaphansi kwaso, inqubo nosiko lwenhlangano, nokunye okuningi) kanye nezinguquko ezenziwayo kumigomo. Imenejimenti (abaphathi) bavamise ukuthatha izinqumo okumele ziphethwe ngabasebenzi, kodwa ngaphandle kokuthi banikeze abasebenzi ithuba lokuthi baqondisise izizathu nezimbangela zaleyo migomo. Ucwaningo lubonise ukuthi abasebenzi banesidingo esikhulu sokuthola izizathu zemigomo ethize, kanye nokuqondisisa izinqumo eziyogcina zibachaphazela noma zibabandakanya, ukuthi kungani lezo zinqumo zithathiwe. Ngisho nje nezinto ezilula ezifana nokudonswa kwezimali emiholweni ezibhalwa kuziliphu zemiholo, kungenzeka abasebenzi bengaziqondisisi, kanti futhi lokho kungabanga ingxabano nokuhilizisana phakathi kwabaqashi nabasebenzi. Kucwaningo olwenziwa eMelika (bheka kuKoeleman 1992) abasebenzi baphawula izinto ezilishumi eziphathelene nolwazi ezibalulekile kubo (zishicilelwe lapha ngezansi ngohlu olubonisa ukubaluleka kwazo):

    1. Ukuhlelwa kwemigomo kunhlangano.
    2. Ukuthuthukiswa kwezinga lemikhiqizo.
    3. Imigomo ephathelene nezabasebenzi.
    4. Ulwazi ngokwenziwa komsebenzi.
    5. Amathuba epromoshini (ukunyuswa ngezikhundla emisebenzini).
    6. Izinto ezivela ngaphandle kodwa ezinomphumela ngomsebenzi wabasebenzi.
    7. Ukuthi ngabe umsebenzi wabasebenzi uxhumene kanjani nenhlangano yonkana.
    8. Ezinye izinto ezenzeka kwamanye amadivishini abasebenzi abangasebenzi kuwo.
    9. Ukutholakala kwamathuba kwezinye izinhlangano eziqhudelana nalena.
    10. Ukuhleleka nokusakazeka kwabasebenzi kunhlangano.

Ulimi luyinto ebaluleke kakhulu kulezi zinto ezibekwe lapha ngenhla, ngenhloso yokuqinisekisa ukuthi lezi zinto ziqondisiseke kahle emisebenzini.

  • Ulwazi oluchazayo nolunikeza ugqozi lomsebenzi
    Uma sibheka kalula nje, ukuba nolwazi oluchazayo nolufakela ugqozi, luncike kuzinto ezimbili, okuyinhlangano kanye nomuntu siqu sakhe. Maqondana nomuntu siqu sakhe, izinto ezifana nengqondo, indlela umuntu abona nathatha ngayo izinto, iminyaka yobudala, kanye nezindlela umuntu abhekana ngazo nezinkinga, kudlala indima ebalulekile. Abasebenzi banezinto ezehlukene abazilindele ngemisebenzi yabo — ezinye zalezi zinto wukuba nobudlelwane, kanti abanye abantu banomfutho wokufuna ukuqhubekela phambili (ambition) ukuze bazuze okuthize, noma umsebenzi wabo wamukelwe. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, inhlangano ngokwayo idlala indima enkulu maqondana nokufakela abasebenzi ugqozi. Okubaluleke kakhulu lapha, yizinto ezifana nengqikithi yomsebenzi, inqubo yabaholi, kanye nangendlela abasebenzi abahleleke ngayo kule nhlangano. Abasebenzi badinga ukuthi yamukelwe imisebenzi yabo nokubona ukuthi baphathwa ngenhlonipho emisebenzini. Konke lokhu kudinga ukuxhumana kwanhlangothi zombili phakathi komsebenzi siqu sakhe kanye nenhlangano. Kucacile ukuthi ukuxhumana kanye nokuqondisisana kuyisisekelo esibaluleke kakhulu kule nqubo.

  • Uqeqesho
    Ngisho noma uqeqesho lwabasebenzi luyingxenye ebalulekile yayo yonke imisebenzi engenhla, sizobhekana nalezi zinto ngayodwa, ngoba uqeqesho luyindlela yokunikeza abasebenzi amandla ukuze bakwazi ukwenza umsebenzi wabo ngeqophelo eliphezulu kunhlangano (bheka ucwaningo olwenziwa nguCenoz & Genese, 1998). Inselele enkulu izinhlangano ezibhekene nayo, wukunikeza uqeqesho ngendlela enomphumela, (kanti futhi uqeqesho luyabiza ezimalini). Ukuqeqesha abantu ngezilimi zabo, kuyinto eyamukelekayo njengendlela enomphumela obonakalayo ngoba abasebenzi baqondisisa kangcono (bheka kuMajhanovich 1992), kanye nokuthi lokhu kuyindlela enikeza labo abakhuluma ezinye izilimi abayidlanzane amandla (bheka kucwaningo luka Gowen [1992] — ikakhulukazi kumakhasi ka-17 & 18 kanye noKerka [1992]). Ukunikeza uqeqesho ngolwimi lomsebenzi kuphungula nesikhathi sokwenziwa nokuphethwa kwalolu qeqesho, futhi kunyusa nezinga lokuqondisiseka kwezinto okuqeqeshwa nokufundiswa ngazo. (Bheka kumbiko we-LANGTAG [1996]).

1.1.2 Ukusebenzela injongo eyodwa nokubona ngaso linye (convergence theory)

Itiyori yokusebenzela injongo eyodwa nokubona ngaso linye (convergence theory) isiza izinhlangano ukuba nesisekelo esisodwa maqondana nokufinyelela kunhloso yokusebenzisana kwabo bonke abathintekayo emizameni yokusebenzela injongo eyodwa. Ngisho noma kungaba nezinqubo ezihluka-hlukene kwezokuxhumana kunhlangano, itiyori yokusebenzela injongo eyodea nokubona ngaso linye, ibeka udaba lokuxhumana esikhundleni esibaluleke kakhulu ekufezekiseni lenhloso.

Le nqubo ye-convergence theory (yokusebenzela injongo eyodwa nokubona ngaso linye) itholakala kuzimiso zokuqala eziqondene nolwazi (information theory), cybernertics ne-general systems theory. Le nqubo ye-convergence theory yasungulwa nguKincaid ekupheleni kweminyaka yoma-1970 kanti yaqhutshekiselwa phambili eminyakeni yoma-1980. (Kodwa lento siyichaze kalula nje noma ingelula, kanti abantu bangafunda ngemininingwane yale theory kweminye yale mibhalo elandelayo: Hartley 1998; Kincaid 1979; noRogers & Kincaid 1981).

Ngokulandela le-model yokusebenzela injongo eyodwa, ukuxhumana kuthathwa njengenqubo (iprosesi) lapho abantu ababili noma abangaphezulu bechathazelana ulwazi, kanye nokufinyelela emkhakheni ofanayo ngokuqondisisana kule prosesi. Ngamanye amagama ukuqondisisana kuyenzeka, kanti labo abaxhumanayo bagcine ngokubona izinto ngeso elilodwa (noma ukufinyelela inhloso efanayo), kunokuthi baqhelelane ngemibono ngenxa yokuthi bengaqondisisani. Ukuxhumana kuthathwa njengeprosesi eyenza ukuthi izinhlangothi ezingaboni ngaso linye zigcine sezibona ngaso linye (ngoba phela ukuba bekuvele kubonwa ngaso linye, besingeke sibhekhona isidingo sokuxhumana nokubonisana), kanti futhi ukuxhumana kuyiprosesi ephungula umehluko okhona owenza ukuthi kungabi nakubona ngaso linye (ngakhoke inhloso yokuxhumana wukubonisana kanye nokuchazelana) Le-model yaphakanyiswa nguKincaid ukufinyelela ezingeni le-social tiyori, ngokuyihlanganisa ne-network tiyori. Abasebenzi bayingxenye yezobudlelwane babantu okufanele benziwe futhi bugcinwe ngokuchathazelana ulwazi. Amathuba enele okuxhumana enza ukuthi abantu abahlukene abathintekayo bagcine sebebona ngaso linye.

Kunhlangano, inhloso okuphikelelwe kuyo, wukuthi bonke abathintekayo noma abasebenza ndawonye kumele basebenzele injongo eyodwa. Ngokulandela i-convergence tiyori, ukuxhumana kudlala indima ebaluleke kakhulu ekufinyeleleni kunjongo enkulu. Uma le tiyori isetshenziswa ezinhlanganweni, isho ukuthi ukuxhumana enhlanganweni kuyinto ephelele nenomphumela, abantu abehlukene (abasebenzi) bazogcina sebebona izinto ngaso linye, kanti futhi bazovumelana ngenjongo eyodwa (kanti lokhu kufana nalokho okushiwo ngu-Thayer [1997], ukuthi ukuxhumana kudlala indima enkulu kakhulu ekuqondisiseni kanye nasekuchazekeni kolwazi). Kodwa-ke sekutholakele ukuthi ukuxhumana kakhulu, kwesinye isikhathi akuholeli ekutholeni leyo miphumela. Kusekhona izihibe eziningi kwezokuxhumana, ezibanga ukuthi kungabi bikho lokhu kufinyelela kunjongo eyodwa kanye nokuqondisisana (ukugxila kunhloso eyodwa, ngokufinyelela ekuqondisiseni izinto ngokufananayo) akwenzeki njalo. Ngaphansi kwalezi zimo, ukuxhumana kungenza ukuthi kube nokuqhelelana okwenza ukuthi kungabi lula ukufinyelela ekuqondisisaneni kanye nakunjongo eyodwa). I-convergence tiyori igxila kakhulu ekubhekeni izinto ezibanga ukuthi kube nezihibe kwezokuxhumana, khona lezo zihibe ezibanga ukuqhelelana zizosuswa (ngoba zenza ukuthi abantu bangafinyeleli ekuqondisisananeni kangcono). Uma izihibe sezisusiwe, kuzoba nokubona ngaso linye nokusebenzela kanye nokuqhubela phambili izinhloso ezifanayo.

Kucwaningo olwenziwe eNingizimu Afrika (Hartley 1998) lapho okwasetshenziswa khona i-covergence tiyori ekubhekeni izihibe ezibanga ukuthi kungabi nakuxhumana kahle, kuMbutho wezaMasosha kazwelonke eNingizimu Afrika (South African National Defence Force), kucacile ukuthi ukungazi izilimi zabanye kuyisihibe esikhulu kwezokuxhumana, ikakhulukazi kubantu abakhuluma izilimi zomdaba zakuleli. Lesi simo sibangele ukuthi kube nokuqhelelana kunokuthi abantu basebenzele injongo eyodwa.

1.1.3 Ulimi nokuxhumana ezinhlanganweni
Ngaphambi kokuba sibuyekeze indima edlalwa ezokuxhumana ezinhlanganweni, kukhona izinto ezimbili ezibalulekile maqondana nolwimi okudinga zibonelelwe:

  • Enye yezinto ezibalulekile maqondana nolimi itholakala kuSapir-Whorf hypothesis (bheka isibonelo kuHoijer 1994 ). Ngokulandela leSapir-Whorf hypothesis, ulimi akuyona nje into eyithuluzi noma ewusizo ezimpilweni zabantu — kodwa ulimi yilona oluchaza indikimba yezimpiilo zabantu nezipiliyoni zabo. Ulimi kanye nemicabango kuncikene kakhulu. Inqubo yokuhleleka kolimi nolimi, isiza ekuhleleni imibono kanye nokuba yisikhokhelo ukusiza umuntu nomuntu ukuhlela imicabango yakhe ekuqopheni kwakhe izinto eziningi abhekene nazo. Ulimi lwenza ukuthi umuntu abe nendlela abona naqondisisa ngayo izinto kusimo aphila kuso kanye nokuba nezincazelo ngalezo zinto (bheka futhi kuClyne [1991]).

  • Amasiko abantu kanye nezindlela abacabanga ngazo abonakala nokwazeka ngolimi. ULieberman (1994) ukhombise ukuthi ulimi luyakwazi ukuthuthukisa izindlela ezehlukene zokuthuthuka nokuhluzeka kwengqondo, amasu okuxazulula izinkinga, kanye nokuxhumana kwemikhakha emibili yobuchopho. Imiphumela yalokho wukuthi izilimi ezehlukene ziholela kuzindlela ezehlukene zokucabanga nokuchaza izinto ezehlukile kumaqembu namaqembu ezilimi (bheka futhi kucwaningo luka Clyne [1991]) U-Aagen (1993) ubuye achaze ukuthi ukwamukela nokuhlonipha amanye amasiko (kanye nezilimi ngoba ziyingxenye ebalulekile yamasiko), kanti lokhu kubanga ukuthi abantu bezilimi namasiko ehlukene bakwazi ukuphilisana, ngoba lokhu kuyinto ebalulekile nekhombisa ubuntu babantu. UDr Kjell Herberts wase Abo Akademi University eFinland washo kukhonferense wathi ukuhlukana kwezilimi namasiko kungaba yinto ebanga ingxabano emiphakathini lapho kungekho khona ukuhlonishwa kwalamasiko nezilimi ezehlukene. Ukuqhubeka nokungamukeli izilimi namasiko ehluka-hlukene kubanga ukuthi kube noqhekeko kanye nezinye izinkinga (Fourie [1991]).

Izidingo zokuthi kube nokuxhumana okuhle zamukeleke kuwo wonke umhlaba jikelele. Ukuxhumana okuhle kusho ukuthi imiyalezo kumele izwakale kahle ngendlela okuhloswe ukuthi izwakale ngayo futhi ichazeke njengoba kuhlosiwe. Isibonelo, izinhlangano eziningi zisebenzisa izinkindlane zezimali kanye nokuzikhathaza kakhulu ngokulungiselela ama-advert noma izikhangiso, ukuthi ziqondiswe ngqo kubantu abathize. Ukuxhumana okuhle nabasebenzi yinto ebaluleke kakhulu kunhlangano, kubaluleke njengayo imikhankaso yezokumaketha eqondiswe kumikhakha ethize, konke kubaluleke kakhulu kwezentengiso yemikhiqizo, amasevisi kanye nemibono. Lapho umlayezo ubaluleke kakhulu (isibonelo, umlayezo ngezokuphepha, ngezokukhiqiza, ngezokugcinwa nokulungiswa kwezinto, kanye nokusetshenziswa kwemishini emisha, ukugqugquzela abantu nokubafakela ugqozi nokunye kanjalo-njalo), kanjalo nencazelo yalezo zinto ibaluleke kakhulu nayo, kanye nokuchazeka nokuzwakala kwazo kulabo bantu eziqondiswe kubo. Okubaluleke kakhulu wukuthi incazelo nokuzwakala kwalezo zinto kumele kuqondiswe kubantu ngendlela okuhloswe ngayo. Kule nqubo yokuchaza izinto, ulimi ludlala indima ebaluleke kakhulu kuyo yonke imisebenzi yokuxhumana njengoba kuchaziwe kusigaba 1.1.

Ngakho-ke, uma inhlangano ithatha isinqumo sokusungula umgomo wokusebenzisa ulimi olulodwa kunhlangano, lokhu kunemiphumela emikhulu kabi kubasebenzi, abangalwazi kahle lolo limi olukhethwe njengalolo okumele kusetshenziswe lona kuphela. Into ebaluleke kakhulu ngale miphumela yilokhu okulandelayo:

  • ukuthi kungaba nokungaqondisisani
  • izingozi kwezokuphepha
  • ukungaqondisisi kahle izincazelo
  • ukuphuca abasebenzi amandla ngoba bengalwazi lolo limi olubekwe njengokuyilona okumele lusetshenziswe, kanti-ke lokhu kwenza ukuthi bangakwazi ukubamba iqhaza kumicabango nezidingo
  • ukuthi abasebenzi bagcine benchisheke ulwazi, ngoba bengakwazi ukuthola lolo lwazi ngoba bengaluqondi ulimi olusetshenzisiwe ukunikeza lolo lwazi
  • Ukuphuca abasebenzi isithunzi sabo, ngoba izilimi zabo, okubandakanya ngisho namasiko abo kuthathwa njengokusesimemi esiphansi ngoba kungamukelekile
  • Ukubeka izihibe kubasebenzi ukuthi bangakwazi ukuxhumana nokukhulumisana nosuphavayisa babo kanye nemenejimenti, kanti lokhu kuchaphazela kabi amakhono abo
  • Ukungabi nenkuthalo nogqozi lomsebenzi, kanti lokhu kungabanga ukuthi abasebenzi baphathe imishini nezinye izinto zemisebenzi budedengu.

1.2 Ukusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene: izibonelo kumazwe omhlaba kanye nangaphakathi
Amazwe amaningi emhlabeni wonke, anezilimi ezikhulunywa ngabantu abayidlanzane elincane. Ngisho namazwe afana no-USA, iBrithani, iShayina, kanye neFransi, okungamazwe athathwa ngokuthi asebenzisa ulimi olulodwa lwezwe, anabantu abakhuluma izilimi ezingavamile neziyingcosana, kodwa lawo maqembu afuna ukukhuluma izilimi zawo noma enabantu abambalwa. Udaba lolimi luyinto esemqoka kakhulu kuhlelo lwe-European Union, futhi udaba lolimi luhlala njalo lunikeza inselele kumazwe aseYuropha maqondana nokusebenzisana (qhathanisa amaqoqo ocwaningo enziwe nguHoffmann 1996). E-USA ukuba khona kwezinye izilimi ngaphandle kolwimi lwesiNgisi kwaze kwabanga ukuthi kube nomkhankaso wokuthi isiNgisi kumele ithathwe njengolimi olugunyazwe emthethweni (official language) — kodwa kuze kube manje, alukho ulwimi oseluke lwamenyezelwa ukuthi luyilona olugunyazwe ngumthetho emkhakheni kazwelonke, noma-ke isiNgisi sidlala indima yokuba wulimi lukazwelonke (bheka u-Adam & Brink [1990] noMcArthur [1993]).

Ngisho noma kwaba nomkhankaso omkhulu ukusekela ngerivolushini yaseFransi ukuthi iFransi yenziwe izwe elinolwimi olulodwa, kukhona amaqembu abantu abambalwa akhuluma izilimi ezingavamile eFransi. Ulimi lwe-Occitanina (olukhulunywa cishe ngabantu abangamamiliyoni amabili) olukhulunywa endaweni yase-Toulose, luwulimi olukhulunywa kakhudlwana nomake izinga lokukhulunywa kwalo lungaphansi kwesiFrentshi. Kanti kukhona namaJarimane aseFransi akhuluma isiJarimane (endaweni yase-Alsace kanye nekomkhulu yayo, iStrasbourg), kanti kukhona nezinye izingxenye zolimi (amadayalekthi) afana neBreton, iBasque, iCatalonian neCorsican. Ukusukela ngeminyaka yoma 70, abantu abayidlanzane abakhuluma izilimi ezingavamile kulelo zwe, baqikelela ukuthola amalungelo abo maqondana nezilwimi kanye namasiko. Ngenxa yalokho, uhulumeni uvumele ukuthi kube nemfundo efundiswa ngamadayalekthi (izingxenye zolimi), kanti futhi le nqubo yokunikeza amandla ngezolimi iyaqhubeka (cf Schott [1999]).

Ngonyaka ka-1992, umkhandlu weYuropha (European Council) onamazwe angu-41 aseNtshonalanga naseMpumalanga Yuropha, wamukele imanifesto yezilimi zezifunda kanye nezikhulunywa ngabantu abayidlanzane, kanti kwanikezwa isiqiniseko sokuthi izakhamizi zakhona ezikhuluma lezi zilimi zibe namalungelo okuxhumana neziphathi-mandla ngezilimi zazo.

Ngo-1961, ukubalwa kwabantu ezweni laseNdiya, kutholakale ukuthi kunezilimi ezingu-1 652 ezikhulunywa ngabantu emakhaya. KuMthethosisekelo waseNdiya kwamukelwe izilimi ezingu-18 njengezilimi ezigunyazwe emthethweni (official languages), kanti ulimi lwesiHindi luwulimi olugunyazwe emthethweni kuhulumeni kazwelonke, kanti isiNgisi naso sibekwe ukuthi sihambisane (co-official) nesiHindi njengolimi olugunyazwe emthethweni. Kulezi zilimi ezingu-18 ezigunyazwe emthethweni, izilimi ezikhulunywa yiningi zendawo zisetshenziswa kuzifunda (kumarijini), zihambisana nesiHindi njengezilimi ezisetshenziswa emibhalweni kanye nakumicimbi esosikweni njengemfundo (Koul [1999]).

Ngenhloso yalolu cwaningo siye sabona kufanele nokunikeza izibonelo ngezwe laseKhanada, ngoba kwenziwe ucwaningo olunzulu kulelozwe maqondana nemiphumela yomgomo wolimi. EKhanada, kunabantu abangamamiliyoni angu-17 abakhuluma isiNgisi, kanti abangamamiliyoni angu-6.7miliyoni bona bakhuluma isiFrentshi, ebese kuthi abangu-4.7miliyoni bakhulume ezinye izilimi, kanti kulelozwe kukhulunywa cishe izilimi ezingu-150 (lapho kubandakanywa nezilimi zabomdabu bakulelozwe ezikhulunywa ngabantu abangu-186 000). Kodwa umbuso ukwazi ukufinyelela abantu abangu 99% besizwe sonkana ngokusebenzisa isiNgisi kanye nesiFrentshi (cf . Fourie [1999]).

EQuebec (okuyingxenye yaseKhanada okukhulunywa kuyo isiFrentshi), kwenziwe imizamo eqhubekela phambili ukusukela ngeminyaka yoma-1970, ukwenza ukuthi yonke indawo ibe ngekhuluma isiFrentshi. Inkinga kwaba wukuthi cishe abantu abangu-93% bamaKhanadiyeni abakhuluma isiFrentshi, bahlala endaweni umnotho wayo (i-ikhonomi) yakhona esebenzisa isiNgisi. Ekugcineni kwenziwa umthetho wokuzama ukuhlehlisa lesi simo. isiNgisi ngoba bekuwulimi olusetshenziswa ku-ikhonomi, yenze ukuthi abantu abakhuluma isiFrentshi bangakwazi ukuqhubekela phambili ngokuthuthuka, bagcine besemabangeni aphansi emisebenzini (cf. ucwaningo ngo d’Angeljan 1984). Ngemuva kokuba kwenziwe umthetho ukuthuthukisa isimo sesiFrentshi, okubandakanye nezindawo zamabhizinisi, kwaye kwatholakala ukuthi abantu abakhuluma isiFrentshi, baqala ukuthuthuka kakhulu kuyo yonke imikhakha yokufinyelela ezintweni, kumasevisi kanye nokuthuthuka kusimo sabo sempilo ngakwezomnotho noma eze-ikhonomi (cf. Laporte [1984]).

Okwaphawuleka kakhulu wukuthi abasebenzi abakhuluma isiFrentshi baqala ukuba namathuba okukhushulwa ngezimo emisebenzini (ukuthola amapromoshini), kanti kwaqashwa nabantu abaningi abakhuluma isiFrentshi ezikhundleni zokuphatha (zemenejimenti). Kwatholakala nokuthi izindleko zokusebenza ngalo mgomo zaba zincane kunalokho okwakulindelwe, kanti futhi kwatholakala ukuthi kuba nemiphumela emikhulu emihle. ULaporte (1984:71-75) ukhombisa nokuthi kwezinye izindawo zemisebenzi kwabo khona emikhulu imiphumela emihle ngenxa yokuvumela abasebenzi ukuthi bakwazi ukusebenza ngolimi lwabo lwesiFrentshi, eminye yemiphumela emihle kwaba yilena elandelayo:

  • ubudlelwane obuhle phakathi kwemenejimenti (abaphathi) nabasebenzi
  • izinga eliphezulu lokuneliseka emisebenzini kanye nokukhuphuka komfutho nogqozi lwabesebenzi emisebenzini
  • izingozi ezimbalwa emisebenzini
  • ukuzisondeza kwabasebenzi kunkampani kanye nakubaqashi
  • ukukhulumisana nokuxhumana okungcono
  • ukunyuka kwezinga lokukhiqiza kanye nokukhuthalela umsebenzi nogqozi lokusebenza
  • abasebenzi baqala ukuqamba izinto ezintsha, ukubamba iqhaza emisebenzini kanye nokungenela ezintweni (ikakhulukazi phakathi kwabaphath / omininjela)
  • izinkinga ezimbalwa maqondana nokuheha abasebenzi (ikakhulukazi kumkhakha wemenejimenti).

Izilimi zomdabu zase-Khanada nazo zivikelwe futhi zamukelwe kuzimo eziningi eKhanada, kanti kukhona izindlela eziningana ezehlukene ezisetshenziswa ukuqhubela phambili izilimi zomdabu ezikhulunywa kabanzi. Emkhakheni wokwenziwa nokusebenzeka kwezinto ezinhlanganweni, inkinga iba khona lapho abantu bezilimi zomdabu uthola ukuthi yilo kuphela lolo limi lomdaba abalwaziyo.UCollins (1992) uphakamisa isixazululo ngezilimi ezehlukene ezindaweni ezisemaphandle nezikude eKhanada, lapho abasebenzi abazi khona kuphela ulwimi lwabo lomdaba. Uphakamisa ukuthi kumele kuhunyushwe izinto zemibhalo ngokusebenzisa izingcingo namakhompyutha, ngokusebenzisa inqubo ebizwa ngokuthi yi-Distributed Language Translation, ukuze abantu bezilimi zomdabu bathole ukuhunyushelwa nokutolikelwa ngaso leso sikhathi. (Lokhu kuhunyushwa ngezingcingo namakhyumputha kwenzeka ngaso leso sikhathi kodwa kususelwa endaweni eyodwa [central place], ngokufanayo nendlela okutolikwa ngayo kumakhonferensi — umehloko okhona nje kuphela wukuthi ibanga elikhona phakathi kwabaxhumanayo kule nqubo likhulu kunqubo ye-Ditributed Language Translation).

E-Afrika
Njengase Yuropha, usuqaliwe umkhankaso e-Afrika wokuqhubela phambili nokuphakamisa ukusetshenziswa kwezilimi zomdabu. Ngo-1986, inhlangano yobumbano lamazwe ase-Afrika, i-Organisation for African Unity — OAU, yamukela uhlelo eyalubiza ngokuthi yi-Language Plan of Action for Africa (Uhlelo lwamanyathelo eziLimi e-Afrika), kanti lolu hlelo lwamemezela okulandelayo:

    ... ulimi yinto ebaluleke kakhulu kusiko lwabantu kanti .... (futhi sizimisele) .... nokukholelwa ukuthi ngokulandela okubekwe kuXwebhu lwezamasiko e-Afrika, ukuqhubela phambili amasiko abantu eAfrika, kanye nokuthuthukisa umnotho kanye nezimpilo zabantu ngeke kwenzeka ngaphandle kokuqikelela ngendlela ebonakalayo izilimi zabomdabu e-Afrika kanye nentuthuko yabo.

Kanti futhi kuphinde kwabekwa ukuthi isimo sezilimi zomdabu kumele siphakanyiswe ukuze zisetshenziswe kwezemfundo, kanye nokwamukelwa kuyo yonke imikhakha yezizwe.

Kwenziwa futhi nesinye isimemezelo ngokulandela iKhonferensi yoNgqongqoshe ababhekene nemigomo yezilimi eAfrika. Kulesi simemezelo, kuqikelelwa isidingo sokuthi kusetshenziswe izilimi zomdabu zase-Afrika emikhakheni ephezulu ukuze kuvulelwe amathuba ezentuthuko yabantu e-Afrika. Ngo-1999, kwamukelwa nokuqiniswa futhi isinqumo (irizolushini) yokuqhubela phambili izilimi zabomdabu e-Afrika, lokhu kwenziwa ku-Asmara Declaration, kanti lesi simemezelo sakhishwa kukhonferense ayayibanjelwe e-Eritrea.

Umbiko we-LANGTAG (1996) wabuye wavuselela nokugxilisa odabeni lokuthi izilimi zomdaba zaseNingizimu Afrika azikathuthukiswa kahle, kanti ukuqhutshelwa phambili kwazo zonke izilimi ezigunyazwe emthethweni eNingizimu Afrika kuyo yonke imikhakha kuyinhloso kazwelonke. UWebb 1995 kanye noRibbens & Reagan (1995) bayazemukela izinkinga ezihambisana nezimo zezilimi zomdabu eNingizimu Afrika, kanye nekhono elincane kakhulu lezilimi zesiNgesi kanye ne-Afrikaans ukuba nomphumela obonakalayo kwezokuxhumana nabo bonke abasebenzi (empeleni, ngokwenabile, ngabasebenzi abangu-50% kuphela abakwazi ukukhuluma kanye nokusebenzisa kahle isiNgisi noma/ ne-Afrikaans).

IBhodi yezilimi zaseNingizimu Afrika (i-PANSALB)
I-PANSALB yasungulwa ngokulandela uMthethosisekelo ngenhloso yokwenza isimo sokuthuthukisa kanye nokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezigunyazwe emthethweni (official languages) kanye nezinye izilimi, kanye nokuziqhubela phambili. Ngakhoke, iPANSALB ayiyone nje inhlangano egadile, kanti ibuye izithathele namanyathelo ngokwayo ukuze ikwazi ukwenza umsebenzi egunyazwe ukuwenza. Sekufakwe amashaji (izikhalazo) ezifakwe kuPANSALB, zifakwa yiMWU kanye nezinye izinhlangano, maqondana nezinkamapani ezithile, ngoba imigomo yalezo zinkampani yenza okuphikisana nezinjongo ezikuMthethosisekelo. Isibonelo sezinqumo ezithathwe yiPANSALB, ezakhishwa kuGazethi kaHulumeni zingokulandelayo:

  • Udaba olusematheni olwaziwa kakhulu yilolo lukaRautenbach, lapho khona okutholakale ukuthi inkampani ye-Spoornet yenze okuphikisana noMthethosisekelo ngokukhipha umyalelo wokuthi abasebenzi bayo kumele babhale zonke izinto zokuxhumana ngolimi lwesiNgisi kuphela. I-PANSALB ibuye yakhipha nesinqumo sokuthi akukho inhlangano evunyelwe ukuthi iphoqelele abakhuluma ulimi olufanayo ukuthi basebenzise olunye ulimi ekuxhumananeni kwabo uma bekhulumisana noma bexhumana.

  • Inkampani ye-South Africa Post Office (iPosi laseNingizimu Afrika) nayo yenze okuphikisana nesigaba-6 soMthethosisekelo ngokusungula umgomo wolimi othi, emisebenzini yePosi, kumele kusetshenziswe ulimi lwesiNgisi kuphela, kanye nokuthi onke amabhodi amasayini kumele abhelwe ngesiNgisi kuphela. I-PANSALB ikhiphe isinqumo sokuthi lokhu okwenziwa yiPosi kuphikisana namalungelo abasebenzi kanye namaklayenti asebenzisa iposi, kanti inkampani yeSouth African Post Office iyalelwe ukuthi iqhubele phambili ukusetshenziswa kwezilimi eziningi ngokuthi ishintshe umgomo wayo ewenzile kanye nokubonelela ukusetshenziswa kwezilimi eziningi. Ihhovisi lePosi libuye lanikezwa nomyalelo wokuthi libonisane nabasebenzi balo ekwenzeni umgomo omusha wezilimi.

  • I-MWU ibuye yafaka neshaji ku-PANSALB maqondana ne-ESKOM, ukuthi imibhalo yayo yokuxhumana nabantu ngaphandle, isebenzisa ulimi lwesiNgisi kuphela. I-ESKOM yona ayikwazanga ukukhipha umgomo wolimi lapho icelwa ukuthi iwuveze. I-PANSALB ikhiphe isinqumo sokuthi umgomo wolwimi we-ESKOM uphikisana nomgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi eziningi njengoba kubekiwe kuMthethosisekelo; kanti futhi ubonisa ukungahloniphi izigaba eziphathelene nezilimi kuMthethosisekelo; kanti futhi umgomo wawo ukhombisa ukulwa namalungelo abantu baseNingizimu Afrika abangamaklayenti e-ESKOM. I-PANSALB ibuye yakhipha umyalelo wokuthi abantu banelungelo lokulindela ukuthi I-ESKOM isebenzise izilimi zabo lapho ixhumana nabo, ngoba iyinkampani kahulumeni (public entity).

  • Umnyango wemisebenzi kahulumeni emiphakathini (iDiphatimenti yemisebenzi kahulumeni emiphakathini) nayo yenze umgomo wolimi othi ulimi lwesiNgisi kumele kube yilo kuphela olusetshenziswa ukuxhumana ngaphakathi nangaphandle. Ngemuva kwesikhalazo esafakwa yi-MWU, iPANSALB yakhipha isinqumo sokuthi lo mgomo wediphatimenti, uphikisana nokukuMthethosisekelo, ngakhoke yayalela iDiphatimenti ukuthi yenze okulandelayo:

    Ikhansele lowo myalelo wayo ewunikeze abasebenzi, ngoba uphikisana nesikhokhelo nemikhombandlela ekuMthethosisekelo wango-1996;

    1. ukuthi iphenyisise ngezidingo zabasebenzi bayo maqondana nezilimi kanye namaklayenti ayo ngokwenza ucwaningo lwe-survey kanye nokwenza umgomo wezilimi ngemuva kokuba yenze lolo cwaningo, umgomo ozobonisa okulandelayo -

      1. umgomo ozobonelela ukusetshenziswa ngokulinganayo kwezilimi ezigunyazwe emthethweni okungenani ezimbili;
      2. kanti umgomo ongeke wavimbela ukusetshenziswa kwezinye izilimi;
      3. umgomo ongenalo ubandlululo;
      4. umgomo ongeke wacikela phansi amalungelo nesimo solimi lwe-Afrikaans; kanye
      5. nomgomo oqhubela phambili ukusebenza kahle kanye nokunikezwa kwamasevisi, kanti futhi obonelela izidingo zamaklayenti kanye nabasebenzi (nestafu);

    2. kanti futhi ukuphetha ngalowo mgomo ngemuva kokubonisana neBhodi; kanye
    3. nokuyeka ukwesabisa abasebenzi ngenxa yezilimi zabo.

Kodwa i-PANSALB okwamanje ayinawo amandla okuphoqelela ukuthi izinqumo neziphakamiso zayo zilandelwe.

ISIGABA 2: UCWANINGO OLWENZIWE

2.1 Isendlalelo
Amaningi amalunga eMWU aye aba nezinkinga nabaqashi bawo maqondana nokusebenzisa amalungelo awo olimi emisebenzini. Umkhuba ovamise ukwenziwa zimboni, wukuthi ziya ngokuqhubekela phambili ukuqikelela ukuthi kusetshenziswe ulimi olulodwa kuphela, oluwulimi lwesiNgesi, kanti lokhu kuphikisana noMthethosisekelo. Ngenxa yale nkinga, iMWU iqale ucwaningo ngokwenziwa komgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi eziningi emisebenzini.

2.2 Uhlobo lwenkinga
Ayikho i-model engumfanekiso nomkhombandlela (eyisikhokhelo) somgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi eziningi emisebenzini. Asikho isiqiniseko sezimiso (sama-principle) abalulekile somgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi eziningi, noma izinto ezibalulekile okumele zibonelelwe kumgomo walolo hlobo.

2.3 Izinjongo
Izinhloso zalolu cwaningo maqondana nomgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi eziningi emisebenzini, yilezi ezilandelayo:

  1. ukwakha isisekelo somgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi eziningi;
  2. ukuchaza izinto ezinhle nezimbi ngomgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi eziningi;
  3. ukubheka indlela yokuxhumana esetshenziswa emisebenzini; kanye
  4. nokuhlola i-draft yomgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi eziningi nabaqashi.

2.4 Izindlela nenqubo yocwaningo
Kucwaningo kusetshenziswe izindlela kanye nenqubo elandelayo:

  1. Ukuxhumana nabameli be-MWU maqondana nomkhawulo walapho kumele kusukelwe khona. Isiphakamiso esenziwe ngabacwaningi ababili, bekuwukuqala kulokho okukuMthethosisekelo.
  2. Ukufunda imibhalo ehlukene: Ukucwaninga imibhalo ehlukene ebhalwe maqondana nokuwusizo nokungelona usizo ngokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene emisebenzini.
  3. Ukuxosisana namaqembu 1: Kwaxoxiswana namaqembu isikhathi esingamahora amathathu, abasebenzi abangamalunga e-MWU ukuthola indlela okuxhunyanwa nokukhulunyiswana ngayo emisebenzini.
  4. I-draft yomgomo: Ngemuva kwemibono eqokelelwe ngezindlela ezintathu ezisetshenziswe ngenhla, kwase kubhalwa idraft yomgomo.
  5. Ukuxoxisana neqembu 2: Idraft yomgomo yanikezwa abameli beMWU abasebenza kuzinkampani ezehlukene. Abasebenzi balezi zinkampani ezilandelayo, I-Iscor, I-ESKOM, I-SASOL, I-Anglogold, ne-Telkom. Kwanikezwa abasebenzi balezi zinkampani ngoba banolwazi olujulile ngenqubo nezindlela zokuxhumana ezisetshenziswa kulezi zinkampani. Kwase kuxoxiswana na la maqembu abasebenzi balezi zinkampani ngokwenzekayo kuzinkampani zabo kwezokuxhumana, kanye nokubonisana ngokuthi ngabe lo mgomo ophakanyiswayo ungasebenziseka yini.

2.5 Okutholakele (imiphumela)

Lapho esisukela khona (points of departure)

Iphuzu elibaluleke kakhulu esisusela kulo, ngomgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi eziningi oqukethwe kuMthethosisekelo. Ekwenzeni umgomo wezilimi, siye sabonelela lezi zinto ezilandelayo:

  1. Okwenzekayo okwamanje maqondana nokusetshenziswa kwezilimi
  2. ukusebenziseka (feasibility) komgomo ophakanyiswayo
  3. izindleko (kubaqashi)
  4. izimo emikhakheni yezindawo nakuzifunda (kumarijini)
  5. izidingo kanye nezifiso zabasebenzi kwezezilimi
  6. ukuhlonishwa kwezilimi ezehlukene.

Indlela evamile okuxhunyanwa ngayo

Izindlela ezivamile okuxhunyanwa ngazo ikakhulukazi emisebenzini zingokulandelayo:

  1. Ezinkundleni zokuqondiswa kwezimilo (ezinkundleni zedisiplini): Ukukhulumisana phakathi komsebenzi obekwa icala kanye nabanye abakhona kuleyo nkundla. Izinyunyane zabasebenzi zivame ukucela ukuthi kube nabatoliki lapho kunesidingo.
  2. Uqeqesho kumaqembu: Ukuxhumana phakathi komqeqeshi kanye nabafundi kwenziwa ngezincwajana kanye nangokukhuluma.
  3. Ama-interviews ngezikhundla zemisebenzi: phakathi komenzi wesicelo kanye nabamele abaqashi, kwenziwa ngezincwadi zokuqasha kanye nezamapromoshini.
  4. Imihlangano: Ukukhulumisana phakathi kwezikhulumi nabalaleli (abasebenzi) kanye naphakathi kwabalaleli kanye nosihlalo/ isikhulumi noma izikhulumi.
  5. Ukuxhumana phakathi komholi wethimu kanye namalunga ethimu.
  6. Imibiko kanye namanye amadokumenti enziwa ngabasebenzi aqondiswe koyinhloko yesekshini yomqashi noma usuphavayisa, ihhovisi lezabasebenzi (personnel office) kanye namanye amasekshini.
  7. Iziliphu zemiholo (zamasalari) kanye namawejisi, namanye amadokumenti enziwa yinhlangano aqondiswe ngqo kubasebenzi.
  8. Ukuxhumana nje okuningi ngokubhala, okufana namanyuziletha aqondiswe kubasebenzi, kanye nezincwadi ezibhalelwa abasebenzi. Ukusabalaliswa kwalezi zincwadi kuba nomehluko maqondana namadokumenti ahlukene: amadokumenti anganikezwa abasebenzi besekshini ethize kuphela, noma aqondiswe kuyo yonke inkampani.

2.6 Isikhokhelo ngomgomo wezilimi
Abacwaningi (kanye neMWU) ngeke bakwazi ukwenza umgomo ozovela nje usetshenziswe njengoba unjalo yizo zonke izinhlangano. Izinhlangano ezehlukene zinezindlela zazo ezehluka-hlukile, ezizodinga ukubonelelwa ngesikhathi kwenziwa umgomo wezilimi wenhlangano. Kodwa esikunikezayo lapha, yisikhokhelo noma umkhombandlela ongasetshenziswa yinhlangano ukwenza umgomo wayo wezilimi. Nangaphezu kwalokho, sibuye sinikeze nemibhalo ngemiphumela yokusetshenziswa kwalesi sikhokhelo somgomo wezilimi.

Okubaluleke kakhulu kubaqashi nabasebenzi okutholakele ngomgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi, wukuthi umgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene emisebenzini uyinto engenzeka nesebenzekayo. Isimo esibaluleke kakhulu ukuze lo mgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene, ukuthi uphumelele, wukuthi kumele kube khona ukuzimisela kanye nokufisa ukuthi uphumelele kubo bonke abathintekayo.

ISIGABA 3: ISIPHETHO

Kulezi zinto esixoxe ngazo ngenhla, siye saphetha ngokulandelayo maqondana nokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene ezinhlanganweni zaseNingizimu Afrika:

  • Ngenxa yokuthi abasebenzi bakhuluma izilimi ezehlukene, kanti futhi alukho ulimi olulodwa olwaziwa noluqondisiwa yibo bonke abasebenzi, kwenza ukuthi umgomo wokusetshenziwa kwezilimi ezehlukene, kube yinto edingeke kakhulu hhayi into ezokwenziwa nje ngoba sikwenzela ukunethezeka nje noma ukudlala;

  • Isidingo sokuthi kube nokuxhumana ngendlela enomphumela nesebenzekayo enhlanganweni, kusho ukuthi kungaba nomphumela omuhle kakhulu uma izinhlangano zingaqala ukuba nomgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene, kanti futhi umgomo wokusebenzisa ulimi olulodwa kunhlangano, wenza ukuthi izinga lokukhiqiza, ukuphepha kanye nokuba nomfutho nogqozi lomsebenzi kubasebenzi libe phansi kakhulu;

  • Ukubheka nokufunda ngezimo zokusetshenziswa kwezilimi eziningi kwamanye amazwe, kukhombisa ukuthi inqubo yokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene emisebenzini yinto yesimanjemanje, kanti futhi iyaqhubeka nokwamukeleka ezindaweni eziningi. Izilimi kanye namasiko ehlukene kungenza ukuthi kube nengxabano emiphakathini, lapho khona abantu bengahloniphi ezinye izilimi namanye amasiko ehlukile kunawabo. Ukunqaba ukwamukela abanye abantu abahlukile, izilimi ezehlukile kanye namasiko ehlukile kubanga ukuthi kube nokungqubuzana noqhekeko;

  • Isipiliyoni nokwenzekile eQuebec, KHANADA, kukhombisa imiphumela emihle ngenzuzo ebakhona ezinhlanganweni kanye nakubasebenzi lapho kusetshenziswa ulimi lwabo abalwaziyo;
  • UMthethosisekelo weNingizimu Afrika ubeka ngokucace kahle ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene, akuyona nje into okumele ibekezelelwe kuphela, kodwa kumele yamukelwe ngokuphelele futhi iqhutshelwe phambili. Ngakhoke kubonisa inqubo yokusekela nokuhlonipha idimokhrasi lapho inhlangano yenza nokusebenzisa umgomo wezilimi ezehlukene — kanti futhi lokhu kusho ukuthi ilandela uMthethosisekelo ngempela. I-PANSALB ikhiphe izinqumo eziningi ezisekela lesi simiso (le-principles).

  • Izifundo nocwaningo olwenziwa ngezinto ezenzekayo ngempela, lukhombisa ukuthi umgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene uyinto esebenzekayo nesebenzisekayo, kanti futhi izinhlangano ezingafinyelela ukuyikhokhela. Umgomo ophakanyiswayo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene ngowenqubo yedimokhrasi, futhi ngumgomo obonelela izidingo ezehlukene, kodwa ugcizelela kakhulu izidingo nokufiswa ngabasebenzi kwezezilimi. Kumele kususwe udaba lokuphoqelela abasebenzi ukuthi basebenzise ulimi oluthize kuphela, lokhu kuzokhulula abasebenzi ukukthi bakhululeke ukusebenzisa ulimi abalufunayo.

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SITHASISELO 1: UMGOMO WENQUBO YEDIMOKHRASI KWEZEZILIMI EMISEBENZINI

Ukuze izinhlangano zikwazi ukusungula umgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi eziningi kanti futhi nokuthi usebenziseke, izinkampani kanye nezinhlangano zikahulumeni kumele zilandele le mikhombandlela noma lezi zikhokhelo:

  1. Imikhombandlela (izikhokhelo) ezibaluleke kakhulu yilezo ezitholakala kuMthethosisekelo weRiphabliki yeNingizimu Afrika (uMthetho No 108 ka-1996 njengoba uchitshiyelwe). Yonke imizamo yokwenza umgomo wokusetshenziswa kwelimi olulodwa kuphela iyabandlulula, kanti iphikisana noMthethosisekelo.

  2. Njengoba kubekiwe kuMthethosisekelo, kumele kubonelelwe le mibandela ekwenzeni umgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi eziningi:
    • ukusetshenziswa kwezilimi okwenzekayo manje;
    • ukusebenzeka nokusebenziseka komgomo;
    • izindleko;
    • isimo sendawo kanye nakusifunda (kurijini)
    • izidingo kanye nokufiswa ngabasebenzi; kanye
    • nesimiso: senqubo yokungabandlululi, kodwa ukuhlonipha izilimi ezehlukene.

    Le mibandela, akumele isetshenziswe njengesu lokucasha ngalo uma abantu bephikelela ukusebenzisa umgomo wolimi olulodwa, kodwa kumele isetshenziswe njengendlela elusizo kanye nebonelela izimo ezehlukahlukene kunqubo yokusetshenziswa kwezilimi eziningi.

  3. Hlelani ibhajethi unyaka nonyaka, ekusunguleni umgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene, isibonelo ngokulandela ukubeka inani elingu 0.1% okuyiphesenti lenani lomholo. Izindleko kumele zingaphumi kubasebenzi, kodwa zibe yingxenye yezindleko ezikhona manje ekubalelweni kwemali yentela.

  4. Ukusungula ikomiti elibhekene nezilimi ukuphatha izindaba ezibhekene nezilimi kunhlangano, ngokulandela uhla lwezinto okumele kuqalwe ngazo ezibekwe ngezansi. Lokhu kubandakanya ukuthi le komiti ebhekene nezilimi kumele kube yiyo eyenza lo mgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene, kanye nebhajethi enayo yonke imininingwane (kodwa umkhawulo wayo ube ngu 0.1% kanti futhi ohambelana nohla lwalezi zinto okumele zenziwe kuqala), njengento okuzoxoxiswana ngayo phakathi kwabaqashi kanye nabasebenzi. Ikomiti lingabuye liphenyisise nangezikhalazo lapho ungalandelwa lo mgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene. Lo mgomo ungabuyekezwa njalo eminyakeni emithathu.

  5. Izimali ezikhona kumele zisetshenziselwe ukubheka okumele kuqalwe ngakho ukwenziwa kulezi zinto eziphathelene nezilimi:

      5.1 Ukuhlola ukuthi ngabe yiziphi izilimi ezifunwa ngabasebenzi, kanti ngemuva kwalokho, ukuhlola izilimi okumele zisetshenziselwe inhlangano yonkana. Inhlangano kumele ikhethe okungenani izilimi ezimbili zokuqala kuzilimi ezigunyazwe emthethweni ezikuhla, kanye nezinye izilimi lapho ibhajethi ivuma khona. Uhla lwezilimi ezifunwa ngabasebenzi, lungahluka kundawo ngendawo, nakuzifunda ngezifunda (kurijini nerijini). Imiphumela yocwaningo lwe-survey ngeke yasetshenziswa kabi ukwenzela ukusebenzisa umgomo wolimi olulodwa. Ngisho noma iningi labantu lifuna ulimi oluthize, kusekhona isidingo sokuthi kusetshenziswe umgomo wezilimi ezehlukile kanti nezimali ziyahambisana nalokho.

      5.2 Ukukhokhela izindleko zamasevisi okutolika lapho kunenkundla yokulalelwa kodaba lokuqondisa izimilo (inkundla yedisiplini) maqondana nabasebenzi abathize abacela isevisi yokutolikelwa. Uma kukhonakala, inqubo enkundleni yedisiplini, kumele isebenzise ulimi olufuna ngulowo obekwa icala.

      5.3 Ukusungulwa kweqembu noma isakhiwo esibhekene nezilimi kunhlangano nenhlangano, kanti futhi lokhu kungenziwa ngokubonisana nesitafu sabaqeqeshi kanye nekomiti. Umsebenzi walabo basebenzi ababhekene nezezilimi abasebenza ngokugcwele/ ngokungagcwele, kuzosiza ukuthi inqubo yokubonelelwa kwezilimi kanye nezinto okumele zenziwe kuqala, yizinto ezenzeka ngempela.

      5.4 Ukuthi abantu ekubhaleni bahlolwe noma benze ama-test ngezilimi zabo noma abakhetha ukuhlolwa ngazo yinto esebenzekayo nengenzeka.

      5.5 Ukuthi abantu ekukhulumeni noma ukuhlolwa ngokungabhali, basebenzise ulimi lwabo yinto esebenzekayo nengenzeka.

      5.6 Ukwenziwa kwama-interview kubenzi bezicelo zemisebenzi bangaphandle nabangaphakathi, kuzikhundla zemisebenzi ezikhona, kumele kwenziwe ngezilimi ezikhethwa yilabo abenza izicelo, lapho kukhonakala khona.

      5.7 Uqeqesho kumele lwenziwe ngezilimi ezikhethwa ngabafundi lapho kukhonakala khona, ngokulandelayo:

      • Ukwenziwa kwesishwankatelo kanye nezincazelo ezicacisa indikimba ebalulekile (key concepts), ngolimi olulodwa noma ezimbalwa, izilimi ezifunwa ngabafundi (lokhu kumele kwenziwe emibhalweni kianye nakunkulumo).
      • Izincwajana zamamanuwali (manuals) ezihumushiwe ngolimi noma izilimi ezifunwa ngabasebenzi.
      • Ukuhlela amaklasi (izifundo) ngolimi noma izilimi ezifunwa ngabasebenzi.

      5.8 Ukuqeqeshwa kwabantu ngezilimi kumele kuvele kubhajethi yezoqeqesho hhayi kubhajethi yezezilimi. Ukuqeqesha ezilimini akumele kubandlulule, ngoba akumele amathuba anikezwe amaqembu abathize kuphela ukuthi bafunde ulimi oluthize. Abafundi kumele bakwazi ukukhetha ukufunda izilimi ezimbili noma ezingaphezulu.

      5.9 Ukuqhubeka nenqubo yokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezikhona manje noma ukungezela kulezo zilimi. Kuzimo, isibonelo, lapho khona izincwadi ezikhishwayo, uqeqesho noma imihlangano esikhathini esedlule bekukade kwenziwa ngezilimi ezehlukene, lezo zilimi kumele zingaphungulwa ukwenzela ukuthi kusetshenziswe ulimi olulodwa kuphela. Kodwa kungamane kwengezelwe kulezo zilimi.

      5.10 Imihlangano ebanjwa ngezilimi ezehlukene. Imihlangano ivame ukubanjwa ngolimi olulodwa, ulimi olwaziwa yiningi labantu. Uma kunesidingo, usihlalo kumele abeke ukuthi yiluphi ulimi olwaziwa yiningi. Kodwa umsebenzi kumele akhululeke ukusebenzisa ulimi olufunwa nguye noma kungeyilona okuqhutshwa ngalo umhlangano. Umsebenzi ofuna ukukhuluma ngolunye ulwimi okungeyilona olusesetshenziswa kumhlangano, kumele aqikelele ukuthi kunikezwa isishwankathelo)senkulomo yakhe ngolwimi olusetshenziswa emhlanganweni (lokhu kungenziwa nguye umsebenzi noma omunye umuntu). Uma kunganikezwa isishwankatelo, kungenzeka lokho obekushiwo ngumsebenzi kungafakwa noma kungathathwa kumaminithi omhlangano. Kumihlangano ebalulekile, usihlalo kumele athathe isinqumo ngaphambi kokuqala komhlangano ngokubonisana neqembu lezezilimi ukuthi kuba nesevisi yokutolika, okuzokwenziwa ngumsebenzi oyedwa noma abangaphezulu, noma kuqashwe abatoliki.

      5.11 Ukuxhumana phakathi kwamasuphavayisa kanye namathimu abasebenzi kumele kwenziwe ngolimi lokuqala olukhethwa yinhlangano, noma ngolimi olwaziwa kakhulu phakathi kwawo wonke amalunga kanye nosuphavayisa. Usuphavayisa kumele aqikelele ukuthi onke amalunga ethimu aqondisisa ulimi okuxhunyanwa ngalo. Uma kunesidingo, amalunga kumele atolikelwe noma athole isishwankathelo. Kodwa lapho kumele kuchazwe into ebaluleke kakhulu, isibonelo, izinto eziphathelene nezindlela zokuphepha emsebenzini, kumele kucelwe usizo kwabeqembu lezezilimi, ukusiza ngokuhumusha imibhalo (ngetransleshini) yamadokumenti azonikezwa abasebenzi noma ngokutolika lapho kukhulunywa ngalezo zinto ezibaluleke kakhulu.

      5.12 Amadokumenti aqondiswe kubasebenzi, kumele anikezwe ngezilimi ezehlukene, ezazeka kakhulu kubasebenzi nokubaluleka kwaleyo dokumenti futhi nangendlela okungakhonakala ngayo. Uma idokumenti izosabalaliswa kakhulu, kusho ukuthi ibaluleke kakhulu maqondana nezokuxhumana. Uma leyo dokumenti izokhishwa njalo kusho ukuthi kuzokhonakala ukuthi ihumushwe.

      5.13 Imibiko kanye nezincwadi. Abasebenzi bangabhala imibiko kanye nezincwadi eziqondiswa kulowo oyinhloko yesekshini ngezilimi abazikhethela zona, kodwa uma ummukeli waleyo ncwadi noma umbiko ecela isishwankatelo yaleyo ncwadi noma lowo mbiko, ngolwimi lokuqala olusetshenziswa yileyo nhlangano, kumele umsebenzi enze kanjalo.

      5.14 Ukuze kusekelwe umgomo wezilimi ngaphakathi, kungacelwa abatoliki noma abahumushi bangaphandle balezo zilimi, ukunikeza ngamasevisi ezokuhumusha nokutolika, ikakhulukazi lapho kuxhunyanwa nabanye ngaphandle.

ISITHASISELO 2: INCAZELO NEZIZATHU: UMGOMO WENQUBO YEDIMOKHRASI KWEZEZILIMI

Isingeniso

Lapho sibheka imibhalo nezincwadi (cf, ucwaningo lwemibhalo) kucacile ukuthi ukuxhumana ngendlela enomphumela enhlanganweni kuyinto ephathelene nokulandelayo:

  • Ulwazi ngokwenziwa komsebenzi
    • imiyalelo ngokuthi umsebenzi kumele wenziwe kanjani
    • ulwazi ngenqubo
    • ulwazi lwezentengo nentengiso
    • Ulwazi ngokuthathwa kwezinqumo

  • Ulwazi lokulawula
  • Ulwazi lomgomo
  • Ulwazi oluchazayo nolunikeza ugqozi
  • Uqeqesho.

Kuyo yonke imisebenzi emihlanu engaphezulu yezokuxhumana enhlanganweni, isidingo esibaluleke kakhulu, wukuthi ukuxhumana kumele kwenze ukuthi abantu baqondisise. Ulimi ludlala indima abaluleke kakhulu kule nqubo yokuqhubela phambili umkhiqizo, ukuneliseka emsebenzini, kanye nokuthi wonke umuntu asebenzele izinjongo ezifanayo kunhlangano. Umgomo wokusebenzisa ulimi olulodwa abantu abaphoqelelwa ukulusebenzisa (oluphoqelelwayo), noma kubasebenzi (abangalufuni) kuphazamisa inqubo yokuxhumana kuyo yonke imisebenzi. Umphumela walokhu, ungaba mubi kakhulu kunhlangano, maqondana nokuphathelene nezokuphepha, ungaphatha kabi nezinga lokukhiqiza kanye nogqozi nomfutho wokwenziwa komsebenzi (kanti kokunye abasebenzi bangacikela umsebenzi phansi (kokunye lokhu bakwenze ngamabomu) enhlanganweni. Kumibhalo esifunde kuyo, kucacile ukuthi kunezinto ezintathu ezibalulekile emisebenzini:

  • Ngabantu abangaphansi kwenani elingu-42% kusizwe sonkana abantu abakhuluma isiNgisi (kanti lolu wulimi izinhlangano eziningi eziqikelela ukuthi kusetshenziswe lona kuphela), kanti cishe kunenani elifanayo labantu abakhuluma ulimi lwe-Afrikaans). Umgomo wolimi kumele ubonelele ukuthi alukho ulimi oluqondisiswa yibo bonke abantu.

  • Umgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene ubaluleke kakhulu kumikhakha ephansi, futhi ungasiza kakhulu ukuthi kube nenqubekela phambili yomsebenzi enhlanganweni. Kanti okunye okubalulekile wukuthi ulwazi lolimi oluwulimi lokuqala enhlanganweni, lubaluleke kakhulu ukuze abasebenzi bakwazi ukuqhubekela kuzikhundla eziphezulu enhlanganweni, ukuthi baqhubekele kuzikhundla zemenejimenti (zokuphatha).

  • Lapho amaqembu abasebenzi eqikelela kakhulu nokufuna ukuthi kusetshenziswe izilimi zabo, kanti futhi bengaluqondisisi olunye ulimi noma ezinye izilimi, lento ibaluleke kakhulu ukuthi ingaphazamisa abasebenzi nokwenza ukuthi bangabi nawo umfutho nogqozi lomsebenzi. Ngakhoke kubalulekile ukuthi kusetshenziswane nabasebenzi lapho kwenziwa umgomo wezilimi, hayi ukuthatha umgomo ozophoqelelwa wuhlangothi oluthize kuphela.

Umgomo ophakanyiswayo wenqubo yedimokhrasi emisebenzini unenhloso yokususa le nqubo yokuphoqelela (ngoba ivame ukubanga ukuthi kube nokukhalaza nokungeneliseki), kanti inqubo ezobonelela izilimi ezehlukene, izokwenza ukuthi abantu babenogqozi nomfutho wokwenza imisebenzi yabo, kanti lokhu, kungaba nemiphumela emihle kakhulu kunhlangano, kwenze nokuthi abantu baqondisise kangcono. Ngokulandela ucwaningo lwemibhalo olwenziwe noma lungenziwanga kabanzi, kuphawulwe ngezinto eziningi eziphathelene nezokuxhumana emisebenzini maqondana nokusetshenziswa kolimi noma kwezilimi emisebenzini.

Amaphuzu abaluleke kakhulu okumele sisusele kuwo maqondana nomgomo wezilimi ophakanyiswayo, avele ngenxa yocwaningo, yilawa alandelayo:

  • isidingo sokuthi kube khona indlela enomphumela obonakalayo wokuxhumana kunhlangano
  • isidingo esibekwe kuMthethosisekelo weNingizimu Afrika maqondana nokuqhutshelwa phambili kwezilimi ezehlukene, kulokho okubhaliwe kanye nokuhlosiwe kuMthethosisekelo.

Incazelo nezizathu zezigatshana ezehlukene kumgomo ophakanyiswayo, kunikezwe lapha ngezansi. Kanti indlela esihlele ngayo izinombolo, ilandela izigatshana zomgomo wezilimi ophakanyiswayo:

1 UMthethosisekelo weRiphabliki yeNingizimu Afrika

UMthethosisekelo uqikelele ukuhlonishwa nokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene. Ukuze silandele uMthethosisekelo, ngokwemibhalo kanye nangenhloso, kumele zonke izinhlangano zenze nokulandela umgomo wokusetshenziswa kwezilimi eziningi. Inhlangano ye-PANSALB (IBhodi yezilimi zaseNingizimu Afrika), yasungulwa ngokulandela uMthethosisekelo, kanye nokuqikelela ukuthi lokho okukuMthethosisekelo, kuyalandelwa. Umgomo wezilimi ophakanyiswayo wenqubo yedimokhrasi kwezezilimi uhambisana nalokho okushiwo nokunqunywe yi-PANSALB maqondana nemigomo yezilimi ethathwe noma eyenziwe zinhlangano ezithile (bheka kumibhalo efundiwe). Kanti naphezu kwalokho, uMthethosisekelo, uhambisana nokwenzekayo kwamanye amazwe omhlaba, ikakhulukazi lapho sibheka okwenzekayo e-Afrika (cf ., isibonelo OAU’s Language Plan of Action for Africa — uhlelo lwamanyathelo okumele athathwe kwezezilimi e-Afrika), kanye nezinto eziphathelene nezilimi eziyingxenye ye-Declaration eyenziwa ngemuva kweKhonferensi yoNgqongqoshe ababhekene nemigomo yezilimi e-Afrika, iKhonferensi eyayibanjwe [eHarare]).

2. Ukusetshenziswa kwezilimi ngendlela eguquguqukayo nebonelela izimo ezehlukene

Iphuzu lesibili esisusele kulo isiphakamiso somgomo wezilimi, lihambelana ngqo namagama akuMthethosisekelo (lapho khona leyo migomo eqondene khona nezinhlangano, kucwaningo). Indikimba yaleli phuzu esisusele kulo, yisiphakamiso sokuthi umgomo akumele ube yinto eqine ngqi nokuma endaweni eyodwa ungaguqu-guquki noma kunesidingo (rigid), kumele sigweme lokhu. Umgomo wezilimi ezinhlanganweni kumele ube ngokwazi ukubonelela izimo ezehlukene nokuguqu-guquka lapho kunesidingo. Kodwa le mibandela kumele ingasetshenziselwa ukuphoqelela umgomo wokusebenzisa ulimi olulodwa.

3. Ibhajethi

Noma yimuphi umgomo wezilimi, unemiphumela ethize kwezezindleko. Umgomo wolimi olulodwa, nawo futhi unezindleko kwezezimali kunhlangano, isibonelo, ukulahlekelwa yisikhathi esiningi kwezoqeqesho lapho kusetshenziswa ulimi abasebenzi abangalwazi kahle kanye nokuchitheka kwezimali nesikhathi kwezemikhiqizo lapho abasebenzi besebenzisa ulimi abangaluqondisi kahle ekukhiqizeni (izinto ezingabangwa wukungaqondisisi kahle, wukungabi nogqozi nomfutho wokwenza umsebenzi, ukungeneliseki kwabasebenzi kanye nezingozi, nokunye okuningi). Kuyingqayizivele ngqa ukuthi kube nokuphakanyiswa komgomo ofinyelelekayo wokuthi kusetshenziswe izilimi ezehlukene futhi kukhishwe imali yokwenza ukuthi lomgomo wezilimi eziningi usebenze.

Ifomyula yokuthi kube nengxenye engu-0.1% webhajethi yemiholo (yamasalari) kunhlangano kunikeza umkhombandlela nesikhokhelo esicacile ngokuthi kumele usetshenziswe kanjani lomgomo wokusebenzisa izilimi ezehlukene. Ukusetshenziswa kwalo mkhombandlela kungabalelwa ngendlela elandelayo, isibonelo:

Kuvame ukuthi umsebenzi wezezilimi (umhumushi noma umtoliki) abize izindleko ezingu-R120 000 ngonyaka kodwake leli nani liya ngesipiliyoni namakhwalifikheshini alowo msebenzi. Ezinye izindleko zingaba ngu-R60 000 ngonyaka (isibonelo, abatoliki ezinkundleni zokulalelwa kwamacala edisiplini noma okuqondisa izimilo, ukunikeza ikontraki yalo msebenzi kubahumushi bangaphandle, abenzi bamadikshinari, umsebenzi wamakhompyutha, amaprogremu amakhompyutha, nokunye). Ngenani elingu-0.1% lomholo (lamasalari), kanye nenani cishe elingu-R60 000 ngonyaka, kumele kube nabasebenzi abangu-3 000 ukuze kube nomsebenzi wezezilimi (ongaba ngumhumushi noma umtoliki) osebenza ngokugcwele. Izinhlangano ezinabasebenzi abangahansi kwenani elingu-3 000, zingacela abangaphandle ukubenzela umsebenzi wokutolika nokuhumusha. Inhlangano uma incane inabantu abambalwa, kusho ukuthi kuzoba nenani elincane lemali ebhekene nezezilimi. Kunhlangano enabasebenzi abangaphansi kwabangu 100, ibhajethi yezezilimi ingaba yinani lika-R6 000. Izinhlangano ezinkulu ezinabasebenzi abazinkulungwane eziningi, zingakwazi ukuba nemali yokuba nehhovisi elibhekene nezezilimi ezigunyazwe emthethweni eziyishumi nanye (11 official languages), kanti futhi nokungezela ezinye izilimi ezingaphezulu ukubhekana nesimo sezilimi esikhulume ngaso kupharagrafu 5.1 ukuya kweka 5.14, kusiphakamiso somgomo obhekene nezilimi. Izinhlangano ezincane zingadlulisela umsebenzi wokuhumusha ukuthi wenziwe ngaphandle, ngoba kuzoba namadokumenti ambalwa adinga ukuhumushwa. Lapho kunomsebenzi obhekene nezilimi osebenza ngokugcwele, ibhajethi kumele ibonelele izidingo zehhovisi, ifenisha, ikhompyutha, kanye namaprogremu ekhompyutha, amadikshinari, ucingo (ithelefoni) nokunye kanjalo njalo.

Isimiso esibalulekile, wukuthi kubonelelwe zonke izilimi ezikhulunywa nezisetshenziswa ngabasebenzi. Ngakhoke likhona ithuba lokuthi abasebenzi kunhlangano bangakhetha ulimi oluthize maqondana nomgomo wezilimi. Kodwa ukunikezwa nokufakelwa kwezimali ekusetshenzisweni kwezilimi kuzoya ngokudingeka nobunganani bezinto ezidingekayo, isibonelo, ukuhumusha noma itransleshini yeziliphi zemiholo yimali encane nakhona ekhokhwa kube kanye kuphela, kanti futhi le ndleko, ayinkulu kangako uma kuqhathaniswa nomphumela ozokwenza ukuthi abasebenzi bagculiseke nokuthokozela umsebenzi wabo.

4. Ikomiti yezezilimi

Ukusungulwa kwekomiti lezezilimi kunhlangano nenhlangano yinto ebalulekile, ngoba umgomo wolimi ngeke wazenzekela nje. Kanti futhi kubaluleke kakhulu ukuthi umgomo ophakanyiswayo wezezilimi ungabi ngowohlangothi olulodwa enhlanganweni, kodwa ube ngumgomo owenziwe ngokuhlanganyela phakathi kwabasebenzi nabaqashi, ngokubonisana kumaforamu avamile akhona okwamanje kunhlangano). Ikomiti lezezilimi lifana nesikhulu esiphenyisisa ngezikhalazo nje kodwa esingenawo amandla okuphoqelela izinqumo zaso ngokomthetho (ombudsman), ngoba ikomiti lezezilimi alinawo amandla okuthatha amanyathelo edisiplini lapho izinqumo zingalandelwa. Kodwa ikomiti lezezilimi kumele lingagaxeki ezinkingeni, kodwa lezo zinkinga lizidlulisele kuforamu enkulu. Lokhu kuzokwenza ukuthi ikomiti lezilimi likwazi ukwenza iziphakamiso ngokugxilisa kanye nokuthuthukiswa komgomo wezilimi.

5. Izinto ezisemqoka ngokulandela ukubaluleka kwazo nokumele kuqalwe ngazo

Kulesi sigaba sesiphakamiso, sibheka izindlela ezibambekayo zokusungula ukusebenza nokusebenzisa umgomo wezilimi. Kucwaningo, kukhona izinto okumele kuqalwe ngazo ezibekiwe ukuthi zibhekane nesimo esiphuthumayo nesibaluleke kakhulu maqondana nokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezinhlanganweni. Izimali ezingasetshenziswa maqondana nokulandela isikhokhelo sephesenti elingu-0.1% wenani lomholo, lizoba yilo elikhombisa ukuthi ngabe umgomo ophakanyiswayo ungasetshenziswa ukufinyelela kuphi. Izinto ezilandelayo zikhonjiswe ngohla lokubaluleka kwazo.

5.1 Ukukhetha ulimi olufunwa noma olwaziwayo

Siphakamisa ukuthi kumele kwenziwe ucwaningo lwe-survey ukuthola ukuthi ngabe yiziphi izilimi ezifunwa nezisetshenziswa ngumsebenzi nomsebenzi kunhlangano. Ukuthola lokhu, kunezinhloso ezimbili — eyokuqala, ngeyokuthi lokhu kuzokwenza inhlangano ibe nolwazi ukuthi ngabe yiluphi ulimi okumele ilusebenzise ekuxhumaneni nomsebenzi nomsebenzi kunhlangano (isibonelo, ulimi oluzosetshenziswa kuzincwadi zokuqasha, iziliphi zemiholo kanye nokunye kanjalo njalo). Kanti inhloso yesibili, lolu cwaningo luzosiza ekuboneni ukuthi ngabe yiluphi ulimi okumele luthathwe ngengolimi lokuqala lwenhlangano yonkana.

Ngokulandela imiphumela yocwaningo, kungakhonakala ukuthi kubonelelwe ukuthi yiluphi ulimi noma izilimi ezingasetshenziswa kunhlangano yonkana — ngokubonelela nayo yonke eminye imibandela okukhulunywe ngayo. Njengoba kubekiwe kuMthethosisekelo, kumele kusetshenziswe okungenani ezimbili zezilimi ezigunyazwe emthethweni (at least two of the first official languages), ezikuhla lwalezo abasebenzi abathe yizona abazikhethayo noma abazikhulumayo). Kanti kungabuye kusetshenziswe nezinye izilimi ngaphezu kwalezi uma ibhajethi ivuma nongokubona kufanelekile ngokulandela lezo zilimi ezikhethiwe kunhlangano. Imithombo yosizo ekhona yiyona ezobeka ukujula nokulandelwa kwezilimi ezifunwa ngamalunga enhlangano. Inhloso elandelwayo wukuthi izilimi ezikhonjiswe ngabasebenzi njengezilimi zabo noma abazifunayo kumele zonganyelwe nokubonelelwa kunhlangano, kodwa le mithombo yosizo kumele yabiwe ngokulinganayo noma kungafanani ncamashi (proportinally). Isibonelo salokhu, (kungaba wukuthi abahumushi abasebenza ngokugcwele bahumushe amadokumenti amaningi aqondene nezemigomo, amanothisi ama e-mail, izincwajana zoqeqesho nokunye kanjalo njalo), lokhu bakuhumusehele ezilimini ezintathu zokuqala ezikhonjiswe ngamalunga enhlangano njengezilimi abazifunayo noma abazikhulumayo nokuziqondisisa, kodwa ngaphansi kwebhajethi okuvunyelwane ngayo yenhlangano. Izindaba ezimbalwa ezifakwa kumanyuziletha enhlangano zingahunyushwa njalo ngezikhathi zonyaka, kungahunyushwa nezincwadi eziqondiswe kubasebenzi, kanye nemibhalo efakelwa kuziliphu zamasalari [zemiholo], maqondana nalezi ezinye izilimi ezingu-8, lokhu kuhunyushwa kwale mibhalo kungenziwa ngabahumushi bangaphandle abanganikezwa ikontraki yokuhumusha.).

5.2 Izinkundla zokulalelwa kwamacala edisiplini (zokuqondiswa kwezimilo)

Ngokulandela ucwaningo, kuye kwacaca ukuthi udaba lwezilimi, luyinto ebaluleke kakhulu nesemqoka okumele iphuthunywe ngokubona kwabasebenzi, ikakhulukazi kuzinkundla zamacala edisiplini (ezokuqondiswa kwezimilo). Ukulalelwa kahle kwecala ledisiplini ngenqubo enobulungiswa kumele kwenziwe ngolwimi lwalowo muntu obekwa icala, kanti uma lokhu kungakhonakali, kumele kwenziwe amalungiselelo okuthi kutolikwe yonke inqubo yadaba. Kukomiti ledisiplini (lokuqondiswa kwezimilo), kungavele kuqalwe ngokubonelela udaba lolimi lwalowo obekwa icala ngendlela okungakhonakala ngayo.

5.3 Ukusungulwa kwehhovisi noma iqembu elibhekene nezezilimi

Ukuze inqubo yokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene iqaleke kahle, kumele kube ngumsebenzi womuntu noma abantu abathize. Ukusetshenziswa nokuhlonishwa kwezilimi ezehlukene akuyona nje into evele izenzekele ngokwayo. Kumele ihlelelwe, isungulwe nokuqalwa ukusetshenziswa kanti futhi le nqubo kumele ilawulwe. Uma ibhajethi yezezilimi incane, inqubo yokubhekana nokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene kungaba yinto engaphansi kwesikhulu sezoqeqesho (training officer) noma obhekene nezabasebenzi [personel officer], (ngoba yingxenye ethize yalowo obhekane nezabasebenzi noma ezoqeqesho ingxenye yomholo wakhe engaba ngaphansi kwebhajethi yezezilimi). Uma kunemali elingene, kungaqashwa abanye abasebenzi ngenhloso yokuthi babhekane nezezilimi (bheka ephuzwini lika-3 ngenhla).

5.4 ukuya ku 5.8 Ezezilimi noqeqesho

Ukuqhutshwa kwezinkundla zamacala, ukwenziwa kwama-test kanye nokuhlolwa (examinations) kanye nama-interview kumele kwenziwe ngolimi lwalowo obekwa icala, ngolwimi lomfundi, noma lowo owenza isicelo, kodwa lokhu ngesinye isikhathi akukhonakali. Uma lowo obhekene nezilimi, umqeqeshi noma obhekene nezabasebenzi engalwazi ulimi oludingekayo kuleso simo kungenziwa okulandelayo: (a) kungacelwa umsebenzi asebenzisana naye ukusiza, (b) kungaqashwa umtoliki noma umhumushi, noma (c) kungacelwa onesipiliyoni osebenza nalowo obekwa icala, noma oqeqeshwayo owazi lolo limi ukusiza. Inhloso ngaso sonke isikhathi kumele kube wukuthola isixazululo esisebenzekayo nesingakhonakala. Uma udaba lwecala, noma lwe-test noma lokuhlolwa, noma -interview kubaluleke kakhulu noma idokumenti iphathelene kakhulu nekusasa lomsebenzi namathuba akhe emsebenzini, kumele kwenziwe imizamo emikhulu ukuqinisekisa ukuthi umsebenzi angabekwa esimweni esimcikela phansi, noma esimbandlululayo, noma lokhu kwenzeka ngendlela engahlosiwe, noma ehlosiwe, kodwa kubangelwa wudaba lolimi olufunwa noma olwaziwa ngumsebenzi. Ukuhlolwa, (i-test) noma i-interview maqondana namakhono omsebenzi kumele kungaphazanyiswa wukuqhamuka ngolimi umsebenzi angalwazi noma kusetshenziswe ulimi umsebenzi angalwazi ngezindlela ezingaqondile ukwenzela ukucikela phansi umsebenzi. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, lolu daba lwezolimi lusho ukuthi abasebenzi abazobhekana nezezilimi, abaqeqeshi noma ababhekene nezabasebenzi, kumele kuqikelelwe ukuthi bazazi ngempela izilimi abaqashwa ukuthi babhekane nazo.

Oqeqeshweni kanye nasekuqashweni kwabasebenzi, kunesimiso esibaluleke kakhulu okumele sibonelelwe, ukuthi kumele kwenziwe umehluko phakathi kwekhono lokwazi umsebenzi kanye nekhono lezolimi noma izilimi ezithile. Ezimweni lapho udaba lokwazi ulimi noma izilimi kuyinto eqondene ngqo nomsebenzi okumele wenziwe kuleso sikhundla, kumele abantu bahlolelwe ulwazi lwalolo limi, ukuze kuqashwe umuntu olwazi ngempela lolo limi noma lezo limi azobhekana nazo.

5.9 Inqubo ekhona okwamanje

Ngokuhambisana noMthethosisekelo, kuphakanyiswa udaba lokuthi lapho kusetshenziswa khona izilimi ezehlukene kumanje, leyo nqubo kumele iqhubekele phambili, kungamane kwengezelwe ezinye izilimi kunokuthi ziphungulwe.


5.10 no 5.11 Imihlangano okusetshenziswa kuyo izilimi ezehlukene/ lapho kukhulunywa

Ngenxa yokucindezeleka izinhlangano eziba nakho emizameni yokuthola ulimi olulodwa olungasetshenziswa emihlanganweni (kanti nokuphoqelela bonke abakulowo mhlangano ukuthi basebenzise lolo limi olulodwa kuphela), abasebenzi abaningi bagcina bengakwazii ukuthi bangenele nokubamba iqhaza kuleyo mihlangano, ngoba besuka bengakwazi ukukhuluma lolo limi olusetshenziswa kulowo mhlangano noma kuleyo mihlangano — noma bengakwazi ukulukhuluma kahle. Ukuphoqelela udaba lokuthi kusetshenziswe ulimi olulodwa kuvama nokugcina kunemiphumela emibi ngoba kwenza abasebenzi bangayithandi inhlangano nokuzizwa beyingxenye yayo. Okunye okugcina kwenzeka wukuthi abasebenzi abanamakhono athize bephucwa amandla yile nqubo uma bengalwazi ulimi oluthize, lokhu kubavimbela ukuthi bangakwazi ukungenela ezintweni nokubamba iqhaza enhlanganweni. Emihlanganweni, kumihlangano yamathimu emisebenzi kanye nasekukhulumisaneni nje, udaba lokusetshenziswa kwezilimi ezehlukene lubaluleke kakhulu, ngakhoke kumele kwenziwe imizamo emikhulu yokuthi kubonelelwe labo abakhuluma izilimi ezehlukile kanye nokwenza ukuthi bakwazi ukuxhumana noma benezilwimi ezehlukile.

Abaqashi kanye nabasebenzi zombili lezi zinhlangothi kumele zizimisele ukuhlangabezana nokusizana kwezezilimi — inhlangano ngeke yaphoqelela umsebenzi ukukhuluma ulimi oluthize kuphela, kanjalo nomsebenzi kumele nomsebenzi akumele aphoqelele ukuthi inhlangano isebenzise ulimi lwakhe, kodwa naye umsebenzi kumele azame ukuqikelela ukuthi umqashi uthola isishwankathelo enikezwa ngolimi olusetshenziswa emhlanganweni.

5.12 Amadokumenti noma imibhalo esebenzisa izilimi ezehlukene

Isimiso nenhloso yokubaluleka nokwenzeka nokusebenzeka kwezinto kubaluleke kakhulu nasekuhumushweni (kutransleshini) yamadokumenti. Imagazini noma iphamfulethi yinto ehlelelwa isikhathi eside futhi ngaphambi kwesikhathi, kanti futhi isabalaliswa (inikezwa) bonke abasebenzi. Yinto ekhonakalayo ukuthi kufakelwe ama-article ngezilimi ezimbili noma ngaphezulu zokuqala zenhlangano kanye futhi nokwenza isishwankathelo se-article ne-article kulimi olukhethwe njengolimi okukhethwe noma olufunwa kakhulu kunhlangano. Izilimi ezisetshenziswayo zingahluka kushicilelo noshicilelo (issue to issue) yemagazini noma iphamfulethi. Iziliphu zemiholo zingenziwa ngezilimi ezehlukene kuye ngokuthi umsebenzi nomsebenzi ukhethe luphi ulimi afuna iziliphu zakhe zibhalwe ngalo, lokhu kungenziwa ngosizo lwekhompyutha. Kanti futhi lokhu kusebenza nakuzincwadi zokuqasha kanye nezinye izincwadi eziqondiswe kubasebenzi, eziphathelene nokunyuswa kwemiholo (amasalari), kanye neminye imilayezo ekhishwa ngamakhompyutha nezingcingo. Imithetho yenqubo nalowulo (rules) ephathelene namalivu, ama-medical scheme, ezezindlu, ezezimpesheni kanye nama-benefit kunganikezwa abasebenzi ngezikhathi nezikhathi ngezilwimi abasebenzi abazikhethele zona. Lokhu kusiza kakhulu ukuthi abasebenzi baqondisise ngabakutholayo (ama-benefit) abo. Ngisho noma okungafezeka ngokwenza lokhu, kungaba wukuthi abasebenzi bazizwe nokubona ukuthi izilimi zabo zithathwa njengezibalulekile kunhlangano, lokhu kukodwa nje, kunomphumela wokuthi kuthokozise abasebenzi nokubafakela ugqozi nomfutho wokuthanda umsebenzi.

5.13 Ukuxhumana nokubonisana phakathi kwabasebenzi

Ulwazi lolimi kahle, luvamise ukuthathwa njengendlela yokunquma nengumnqamula-juqu ekukaleni nasekuhloleni amakhono omsebenzi okwenza umsebenzi ngendlela ebonakalayo nenomphumela ngenxa yemiphumela yezincazelo zomsebenzi ezisuke zikhishwe ngosuphavayisa nakunhlangano yonkana. Isibonelo, kungaba nombono ongeyilo iqiniso wokuthi umsebenzi akawazi umsebenzi wakhe kahle, kanti ufice ukuthi lokhu kwenziwa wukuthi umsebenzi akakwazi ukuchaza kahle umsebenzi wakhe ngenxa yolimi oluthize okumele alusebenzise noma aphoqelelwe ukulusebenzisa, hhayi ngoba engawazi umsebenzi wakhe ngempela. Uma kungasuswa le nqubo yokuthi umsebenzi achaze umsebenzi wakhe noma akhombise ikhono lakhe ngokusebenzisa ulimi oluthile oluphoqelelwe, ebese umsebenzi uvunyelwa ukusebenzisa ulimi lwakhe, kungatholakala ukuthi umsebenzi ukwazi ukuchaza kahle kamhlophe ngomsebenzi wakhe — kodwa-ke noma kumele kunikezwe isishwankatelo olukhethwe yinhlangano njengolimi lokuqala olukhethwe ukuthi yilona olwaziwa noma olukhethwe kakhulu, lapho kunesidingo khona.

5.14 Ukuxhumana nabangaphandle

Ibhajethi ebhekene nezentengiso nama-advert ngezilimi akumele yenziwe isizathu sokucasha ngaso ekwenzeni izinhlelo zokusebenzisa izilimi ezehlukene ngoba imikhankaso yokukhangisa noma ukwenza imikhankaso yama-advert okuthengisa imikhiqizo ngezilimi, iyingxenye yezindleko zokukhiqiza. Kodwa, ihhovisi elibhekene nezilimi lingasiza ngamasevisi ezilimi enzeka kanye, namasevisi ezilwimi angadingeka ngezikhathi ezithize aqondene nokuxhumana nezinhlangano nabantu bangaphandle, izinto ezifana nokuhunyushwa isishwankathelo sombiko wonyaka ngezilimi zenhlangano.

ISITHASISELO 3: IZIKHOKHELO NEMIKHOMBANDLELA NGOKUQALA UKUSEBENZISA UMGOMO WEDIMOKHRASI KWEZEZILIMI

Ngendlela yokukhombisa ngale mikhombandlela, kukhona umehloko ongenziwa phakathi kwezinhlangano ezinkulu kanye nezinhlangano ezincane. Ngenhloso yale mikhombandlela, inkampani enkulu, ingaba nabasebenzi abangu-40 000 kanti futhi ingatholakala kuma-centre noma kuzikhungo ezehlukene kumaprovinsi ehlukene, kanti inhlangano encane ingaba nabantu abangu-350 kundawo eyodwa.

Ukwenza ibhajethi yokuqala ukusebenza ngomgomo wezilimi

Into ebaluleke kakhulu maqondna nokuqala ukusetshenziswa komgomo, wukuthi ulimi nolwimi lomsebenzi kumele lwamukelwe kunhlangano. Kodwa imithombo yosizo nezimali kunganikezwa ngokukhonakala kwezimali nemithombo yosizo ekhona.

Inhlangano enkulu

Inhlangano enenani lo mholo elingamabhiliyoni angu-R2,4bhiliyoni (bheka umgomo) kanti ngokulandela umkhombandlela inani elingamaphesenti angu-0.1% wenhlangano, kuzoba ngamamiliyoni angu R2.4miliyoni ozosetshenziselwa ukuqala umgomo wezilimi. Ngebhajethi engaka, inhlangano ingakwazi ukubonelela zonke izilimi ezingu-11 ezigunyazwe emthethweni — uma kunesidingo esinjalo kumalunga enhlangano.

Inhlangano incane

Inhlangano encane enenani lo mholo ongamamiliyoni angu-R21miliyoni, kungaba nenani lemali engu-R21 000 ezobakhona ukusetshenziselwa izilimi ezehlukene kule nhlangano. Leli nani lincane ukuthi lingaba nabasebenzi abasebenza ngokugcwele ababhekene nezilimi, ngakhoke kusho ukuthi umsebenzi wezilimi ofana nokuhumusha imibhalo kanye nokutolika kuzomele ukuthi yenziwe ngaphandle, ngoba ngeke kwaba nabasebenzi bezezilimi abasebenza ngokugcwele.

Ikomiti lezezilimi

Kunhlangano enkulu

Kundawo nendawo yonkana, ehhovisi elikhulu amakomiti abhekene nezezilimi azobekwa noma ngamaforamu avele ekhona. Ikomiti lezezilimi ehhovisi elikhulu lizonquma ukuthi isikhungo nesikhungo noma indawo ngendawo izonikezwa imali kubhajethi ngokulinganayo noma kungafanani ncamashi (ngemuva kokuba kugcinwe imali ezobonelela yonke imisebenzi emikhulu). Kusikhungo nesikhungo, ikomiti lezezilimi lizoqokwa noma ukubekwa ngendlela efanayo. Ikomiti lezezilimi lizokwenza iziphakamiso ngokusetshenziswa kwezimali ngokubonelela izidingo nezifiso zabasebenzi kwezezilimi kuleyo ndawo (kodwa kuzobe kubonelelwa nolimi olukhethwe njengolimi lokuqala lwenhlangano — ikakhulukazi kuleyo misebenzi okumele kutholwe imibono ebuya ehhovisi elikhulu kuyo).

Inhlangano encane

Kunhlangano encane, ikomiti lezezilimi nakhona liqokwa yiforamu evele ikhona, ukwenza iziphakamiso maqondana nezinto okumele zenziwe kuqala ekusetshenzisweni kwezimali.

Ukwenza ucwaningo lwe-survey ukuze kutholakale ulwazi ngezilimi ezifunwa noma ezaziwa ngamalunga kunhlangano

Izinhlangano ezinkulu nezincane kumele zenze ucwaningo lwe-survey ukuze zithole ulwazi ngezilimi ezifunwa noma ezaziwa yibo bonke abasebenzi. Izilimi ezifunwa noma ezaziwa ngabasebenzi kumele zifakelwe kumarekhodi abasebenzi (kumakhompyutha), ukwenzela ukuthi lapho kubhalwa izincwadi eziqondiswe kubasebenzi, bazi ulimi nolimi lomsebenzi okumele bambhalele ngalo. Into engaba yinhle lapho kukhonakala khona, wukuthi umsebenzi nomsebenzi abhalelwe ngolimi lwakhe lapho ebhalelwa izincwadi eziqondiswe kuye ezifana nencwadi yokuqashwa, incwadi yokunyuselwa isikhundla (incwadi yokwaziswa ngepromoshini), incwadi yokunyuselwa umholo, iziliphi zemiholo (zamasalari) nokunye kanjalo njalo. Kubiza kancane ukuthi izincwadi ezinjengalezi zihunyushwe kube kanye zihlale zikhona, ebese okuningi okuqondane namaphuzu athize kugcwaliswe ngetheknoloji yamakhompyutha.

Imiphumela yocwaningo lwe-survey kumele ihlanganiswe ukuze kutholakale lonke ulwazi lwenhlangnao, kanye nolwazi oluvela kuzikhungo noma izindawo ezehlukene zenhlangano. Izilimi zamalunga enhlangano kumele zihlelwe ukusukela kulezo ezisetshenziswa yiningi ukuya kulezo ezisetshenziswa abambalwa. (Inhlangano ingabuye nayo ibheke imiphumela yocwaningo ukuze ikwazi ukukhetha ulimi oluzosetshenziswa njengolimi lokuqala enhlanganweni yonkana — cf. izinto okumele zibonelelwe nokuqashelwa ngaphansi kwephuzu lika 2 lomgomo.) Ikomiti elibhekene nolimi lingenza iziphakamiso kumaforamu akhona okwamanje ezingxoxo, ngokuthi kungakhonakala ukubonelelwa ngokugcwele/ noma ngokungakagcwele kwezilimi ezingaki. Kuye ngokuthi ingakanani imali ekhona, isibonelo, izindleko maqondana nezilimi ezine zokuqala ezibekwe njengezilimi ezifunwa noma ezaziwa ngamalunga enhlangano, mhlawumbe ezingakhokhelwa ngokugcwele enhlanganweni, ebese kuthi ezinye zibonelelwe ezintweni ezithize kuphela (ezifana mhlawumbe ne-article kunyuziletha — inyuziphepha yabasebenzi; iziliphi zemiholo nokunye kanjalo njalo).

Ihhovisi lezezilimi/ iqembu elibhekene nezezilimi

Inhlangano enkulu

Ezindaweni noma ezikhungweni eziningi (kanye nasehhovisi elikhulu) kungasungulwa amahhovisi abhekene nezezilimi ukuhumusha amadokumenti noma imibhalo ebalulekile, imibhale enqondene nemigomo, inqubo nokunye kanjalo njalo. Lokhu kumele kuhunyushelwe kuzilimi ezehlukene zabasebenzi abakhombise ukufuna noma ukwazi zona. Ihhovisi elibhekene nezezilimi lingabuye liphathe nokubhekana nodaba lomgomo ngezilimi kanye namasevisi ezokutolika lapho kunesidingo khona. Ukuxhumana okujahekile, (isibonelo, lapho kunesimo esiphuthumayo, ngezinto eziqondene nezokuphepha nokunye kanjalo njalo) kungenziwa ngolimi lokuqala umsebenzi azikhethele lona, kanti kamuva, nangezinye izilimi lapho lokhu kusebenzeka khona (ngokuya kwesikhathi). Iqembu lezezilimi lingabuye lisize lapho abasebenzi befuna ukuxhumana nabaqashi.

Inhlangano encane

Inhlangano encane ngeke yakwazi ukuqasha abasebenzi abazosebenza ngokugcwele kwezezilimi abafana nabatoliki nabahumushi, kanti ingasebenzisa amasevisi ezokuhumusha (etransleshini) abantu bangaphandle ukuze ikwazi ukusebenzisa okungenani izilimi ezimbili noma ezintathu ezibekwe njengezilimi ezifunwa noma ezaziwa ngamalunga enhlangano. Umsebenzi wehhovisi elibhekene nezezilimi ungenziwa zikhulu ezibhekene nezabasebenzi/ noma ezibhekene noqeqesho. Ibhajethi (cf., bheka kumkhombandlela esiwufakele ngebhajethi ngenhla) isibonelo, ingasebenziswa ngokulandelayo:

Ikomiti elibekiwe lingaphakamisa ibhajethi, okungaboniswana ngayo kumaforamu avamile:

  1. 1 Ukuhunyushwa kwemibhalo (itransleshini yamadokumenti), imiyalelo kanye namanye ama-artile amanyuziletha aqondiswe kubasebenzi (kuzilimi zokuqala ezimbili noma ezintathu ezikhonjiswe njengezilimi ezifunwa noma ezaziwa ngabasebenzi): R14 000
  2. Ukuhlelela ibhajethi yezindleko zokutolika maqondana nezinkundla zokulalela amacala edisiplini (okuqondiswa kwezimilo), lapho khona (abatoliki bengekho ngaphakathi kwenhlangano): R4 000
  3. Ukuhunyushwa kanye kwamadokumenti noma imibhalo (azokwenziwa ngekhompyutha kube kanye) afana neziliphu zemiholo (zamasalari), izincwadi zokuqasha, izincwadi maqondana nokunyuswa kwemiholo (kwamasalari), nokunye kanjalo njalo (kuzilimi ezikhonjiswe njengezilimi ezifunwa noma ezaziwa ngabasebenzi): R1 500
  4. Ezinye izinto eziqondene nezilimi ezingavela ebezingahlelelwanga: R1 500

Ukuxhumana ngezilimi ezifunwa noma ezaziwayo

Kuzinhlangano ezinkulu nezincane

Nangaphezu kokuxhumana ngemibhalo okuvamile, kungasetshenziswa netheknoloji yamakhompyutha ngendlela okungafinyeleleka kuyo — lokhu kubandakanya nokuxhumana ngama e-mail lapho lokhu kufanele khona. Kuzikhungo ezehlukene, ukuxhumana ngezilimi ezifunwa noma ezaziwayo yinto eyamukelekayo njengoba kubekwe kulo mgomo. Ekuqashweni kwabaqeqeshi kumele kubonelelwe izilimi ezifunwa noma ezisetshenziswayo kuleso sikhungo. Emihlanganweni (amaminithi emihlangano) kanye nokuxhumana okwenziwa ngabasebenzi kungenziwa nanganoma yiluphi ulimi oluthandwa ngabasebenzi, inkani nje uma kuzonikezwa nesishwankathelo yaleyo mibhalo ngolimi lokuqala olukhethwe yinhlangano, lapho lokhu kudingeke khona. Konke ukuxhumana ngemibhalo okuqondiswe kubasebenzi kuvela (isibonelo, kungaba kuhhovisi le-personnel noma elibhekene nezabasebenzi) kumele kwenziwe ngolimi umsebenzi lowo obhalelwayo azikhethele lona njengolimi alufunayo noma alukhethayo (lokhu kungaba zincwadi ezivame ukuthunyelwa ezahunyushwa ekuqaleni, kodwa kushintshwe nje imininingwane ethize).

Imibandela elandelayo eqondene nezilimi kayidinge zimali, ngakhoke ingenziwa ngaphandle kobunzima:

  • Ukusetshenziswa kolimi emihlanganweni — njengoba kuphakamisiwe kumgomo
  • Ukuxhumana okusuka kubasebenzi (okufana nemibiko, izicelo, nokunye njalo njalo.) — njengoba kubekiwe kumgomo
  • Ukuqashwa kwabaqeqeshi ngokubonelela ulimi noma izilimi ezikhethwe yinhlangano.

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